Vmware Interview Questions

1) What are the many different virtualization possible?
Virtualization can happen in one of the following levels
1) Server infrastructure virtualization
2) Desktop virtualization
3) Storage Virtualization
4) Networking Virtualization
5) Personal level virtualization
2) What hardware version of vmware is supported with ESXi 6.5?
With ESXi 6.5 vmware hardware version 13 is supported
3) What is so unique about latest vmware version 13?
The Vmware 13 is supported on top of ESXi 6.5. Being latest this comes with lots of interesting enhancements including:
6TB of RAM per virtual machine is allowed as opposed to 4TB ram in ESX 6 vmware hardware 11 version
HArdware 3D allowed
Upto 10 NIC’s allowed
2 IDE controllers allowed that are needed for CD/DVD drive
AHCI SATA controller 32 serial ports allowed
3 parallel ports allowed
VMXNET 10G network card allowed
4) What is the vmware kernel level with ESX6.5?
Vmware kernel level 7.1 is displayed while booting or restarting the ESXi software
5) What tool is used to configure ESX software?
Once the ESX is installed, the DCUI tool as it is popularly called the Direct Control User Interface tool is used to configure root password to secure the host, configure network management options, enable SSH etc
6) Is SSH enabled by default after installation of ESX?
No. We need to manually enable SSH using DCUI tool. By default SSH is in disabled mode
7) How do you access syslogs in ESX environment?
By making use of the DCUI tool we can interact with host locally. The colorful screen bright yellow in color offers text-based menus that has Troubleshooting options tab. From that we can pick and choose syslogs
8) If we want to configure fault tolerance in virtual machines what needs to be considered?
The fault tolerance option offers best high availability in bringing up the secondary virtual machine to assume the role of its primary with no data loss in less than 10 seconds. For this to happen the virtual machine configured in this should not have more than 4CPU’s
9) What is the use of DRS in ESX environment?
The Distributed resource scheduler DRS as it is popularly called automated the vmotion which is process of moving virtual machines from one EXS host to another. Storage DRS is the automation of storage vmotion the migration of virtual machine related storage files that are stored as directories in shared storage
10) When is SSD used in shared storage?
SSD offers very high I/O throughput making it preferred virtual machine storage solution for performance sensitive applications like heavy traffic websites, SAP systems, ERP systems etc
11) Under what circumstance do you move virtual machines among ESX hosts as a scheduled maintenance?
Whenever there is a need to upgrade ESX host the virtual machines need to be moved to different ESX host. This process is called vmotion and will happen without the end user feeling the maintenance
12) During upgrade which component needs to be upgrades first?
Say if ESX 6 needs to be upgraded to ESX 6.5, then vcenter is the component that needs to be upgraded first as vcenter does not offer backward compatibility. Also the hardware version of virtual machines supported on ESX 6 is 11 whereas in ESX 6.5 is 13. Upgrading virtual machines with ESX upgrade to match the hardware version needs to be considered
12) What is a vmware storage policy based on?
Storage policy is based on availability, capacity and performance. In vsphere client vm storage policy is created as rules that need to be or not need to be applied to specific Virtual machines (VM’s)
13) I see some .vsmn files in datastore. What are those?
These are snapshot files in datastore that are stored in a particular virtual machine folder
14) Will number of CPU’s in a virtual machine impact vmotion capabilities?
Nope. Number of CPU’s has no impact on vmotion
15) What is CPU affinity?
When we right click on virtual machine, edit settings, choose CPU arrow and expand it, there is a form field called scheduling affinity. Enter the CPU number here. Typically CPU affinity is not recommended in production environment unless this is a high intensive vm that needs exclusive CPU affinity. Check with your IT team before making a decision on this
16) What is use of Vmkernel in vMotion?
As a first step in vMotion the virtual kernel vmkernel port needed for vmotion should be created with vmotion option selected in port properties of vmkernel port settings in networking tab of ESX host. The hosts that are part of vmotion should belong to same network. This is internally used for vMotion
17) What options are available when you try to monitor vsphere DRS?
Recommendations – This provides information on venter provided recommendations. Typically while we run the DRS, if there exists an issue the information is available in recommendations page. These recommendations can be applied as well as overridden. Once the recommendations are applies, we need to re-run DRS to make sure issue is fixed, more recommendations need to be applied etc depending on issue in DRS environment. In a properly working DRS environment there may not be any recommendations and the page can be empty as well
Faults – Issues are recorded here
History – Past events can be monitored from here
CPU Utilization – DRS is a performance balancing option that can be setup and used on its own as well as in ESX cluster that has HA implementation in place. In whatever case CPU utilization needs to be spread across hosts. Say if there are two hosts, 5 virtual machines in total cpu utilization will be divided among these two hosts with one slightly higher than another
Memory utilization – Similar to CPU utilization memory resources can be tracked in DRS using this page
Network utilization – Network is a crucial element in ESX DRS and this can be monitored from here
18) What options need to be set when you try to turn on vSphere DRS?
DRS Automation – This can be manual, fully automated, partially automated. In a typical environment DRS once turned on is fully automated. Manual DRS setup happens in projects with new vmware implementations. Department managers prefer to run and utilize this on manual basis to see what issues do crop up. Once the environment is stabilized it is mostly in partially automated or fully automated DRS automation mode
Additional options – Policies are set here
Power management – This can be off,manual, automatic
Advanced options
19) Where do you find details on alarm settings after they are set?
Alarms can be created at virtual machine level, host level in addition to 33 default in-built alarms. The alarms created, triggered and more issues can be monitored from issues tab. Following options are available in issues tab:
All issues
Triggered alarms
Alarm definitions
20) What are the many different datastore configuration options in ESX environment?
vCenter helps us configure the datastores using the following options – General, device backing, connectivity and multipathing, capability sets
21) How do you determine the balance level of vSphere DRS in vcenter environment?
From the vcenter, summay page, navigate to vSphere DRS panel at the bottom of the page to determine if DRS is balanced or imbalanced. In addition to this following vSphere DRS information is available in summary page:
Migration automation level – It can be one of the following values automated, manual, partially automated
Migration threshold
Power management automation level – on (or) off
DRS recommendations – While we click Run vsphere DRS from vsphere DRS configure button page, there can be some DRS recommendations. Number of recommendations is available in this location
22) What is the use of actions in alarma?
In Vmware alarm actions specify the actions to be taken when alarm state changes. This can be one of the following actions:
Reset VM
Run a command
Send a notification email
Send a notification trap
Shutdown guest on VM
Suspend VM
23) Is alarm panel available by default in vcenter layout?
Nope. By default Alarms are not available in vcenter layout. To bring the alarms panel, click on user login name in top right corner, choose layout settings. Click on alarms to enable alarm panel
24) Which options are available by default in vcenter layout?
Recent tasks, recent ations are available by default in vcenter layout
25) What options are available in edit setting menu of virtual machines?
Following options are available as part of Edit Settings panel in virtual machines. By right clicking the virtual machines, we can choose edit settings and modify one or more of the following metrics:
Hard disk
SCSI controller
Network adapter
CD/DVD Drive
USB controller
Video card
VMCI device
SATA controller
Other device
In addition to this we can choose a new device from drop down list
26) I right click my virtual machine, choose power option. I see that Shutdown Guest OS and restart Guest OS options are grayed out. The virtual machine is up and running. Power off, suspend reset options are available. What is the reason?
The options Shutdown Guest OS, restart Guest OS grayed out inspite of virtual machines in poweron , up and running status means that the vm tools that has been installed in this virtual machine has been idle. To make use of these options, open console log into the virtual machine, perform tasks for few minutes to make sure the session is live. This will change the status of idle vm tools. At this stage these options will be available again
27) If the shutdown guest OS is grayed out what should I do?
We can power off the virtual machine (or) choose restart to restart the virtual machines. Shutdown guest OS is a graceful power off option but the above mentioned two options are equally good
28) Restart Guest OS is in gray mode. I can’t change it. What should I do?
Press the restart button that does perform the restart of virtual machine as a whole. Still we achieve the same result
29) What are the services that can be enabled in VMKernel port settings?
One or more of the following available services can be enabled while configuring VMKernel port settings:
Fault Tolerance Logging
vSphere Replication
vSphere Replication NFC
Virtual SAN
30) When you are tasked to configure the Virtual adapter what are all the many different settings that needs to be configured?
Following settings need to be configured as part of VMKernel creation in vsphere web client:
Port Properties – In this page TCP/IP stack is configured. In addition to this most important enabled services listing is available in this page. Depending on project we need to choose one or more of the following enabled services to make them available – vmotion, provisioning, fault tolerance logging, management, vsphere replication, vsphere replication nfc,virtual san
NIC settings
IPv4 settings – This can be statisIPv4 address wherein we specify network IP address, MAC address, choose default gateway. In case of DHCP this can be dynamic IP as well
Analyze impact page – Final validation page before we finish the creation of virtual adapter
31) What are the main options availabel in navigator pane of vsphere webclient?
The four main vsphere ruling options are available by default as part of navigator pane in vsphere webclient. This is available in left side of screen. The options are :
Hosts and clusters
VM’s and folders
These options can be pulled from home menu tab as well
32) Try launching console when virtual machine is powered off. What happens?
An error stating that server is not available is displayed. Typical error says, A server error occured. The console could not be shown because VM machine is powered off, suspended or disconnected. Power on and connect the VM and re-launch the console to reconnect. Click the vsphere web client logs for details. this can also happen when the console was open previously, the VM was powered off in-between
33) What are the many different VM/Host rules types that can be chosen in DRS?
The VM/Host rules in virtual machine DRS can be one of the following types:
Keep virtual machines together – The chosen virtual machines are always maintained in same host
Separate virtual machines – The chosen machines are distributed in separate hosts
Virtual machines to hosts – Chosen virtual machines are tied to hosts. This is useful with resource intensive virtual machines like ERP, sAP etc
Virtual machines to virtual machines – In case of websites there are stack of vm’s that are dependent on each other and dependency need to be maintained
34) What options are available in vcenter support server summary page?
Backup – Vcenter server database which can be default postgres database, as well as custom databases like oracle sql server can be backed up onto folder, FTP location etc
Create Support bundle – This will create bundle in zipped format needed for issue investigation by vmware
Reboot – vcenter reboot
Shutdown – Shutdown vcenter
35) What is the use of lockdown mode?
Lockdown mode prevents remote users from directly logging onto hosts. The default option is disabled. There are two more options like normal,strict
36) Where do you look for resource reservations in ES cluster environment?
From the vcenter server, we can monitor the resource reservation of an ESX cluster. The information is available in cluster monitoring tab. Following resource reservations can be monitored from here
Information on total cluster capacity showing how much resource is available to cluster as whole, total reservation capacity of each and every resource, used reservation, available reservation details is available in this panel
37) What are the many different monitoring options available in websphere client while cluster configuration is in place?
Following details can be monitored in ESX cluster environment
Profile Compliance
Tasks & Events
Resource Reservation
vSphere HA
38) From where can you schedule a patch install in ESX environment?
Each and every host in vsphere web client has an option to remediate the patch schedule. This task can be done immediately, can be scheduled as a task to be run in future. The Remediate button can be accessed from update manager
39) Can we install patches in ESX environment while virtual machines are on?
Typically we try to remediate a patch install as a shceduled task. This will fail if virtual machines are on. If we manually apply patch again all the virtual machines in the host should be off for the patch install to be success
40) What error message is displayed in update manager when an attempt is made to install patches with virtual machines in on state?
A message saying Overall compliance status – Non-compliant is displayed in update manager panel. We can click on scan for updates button to make sure the overall compliance status is a success
41) What is the main item that can be authored using vapp settings?
The start sequence of virtual machines can be configured in start order option of vapp page. This can be authored. We can specify startup operation, startup sequence delay which by default is 120ms. This value can be changed. Shutdown action can also be specified in this location
42) What details can be accessed from within vSphere HA sumamry page?
When a vSphere HA (High availability) configuration is in place, details of the same can be accessed from vSphere HA summary page:
Standby Mode
Maintenance Mode
vSphere HA agent unconfiguration failures
Virtual machines – protected mode, unprotected mode
43) What vSphere HA items can be monitored from vsphere web client page?
Following items (or) parameters can be monitored
Summary – mode the hosts are in like standby mode, maintenance mode, virtual machines in protected mode, unprotected mode
Configuration issues
Datastores under APD or PDL – This option talks about all path down (or) permanent datastore loss the main condition under which failover happens in a vmware host
44) What is a slot in virtual environment terminology?
In day to day life while making use of vmware slot is used invariably. Slot refers to virtual machine and not the host
45) Is vsphere HA and DRS supplement to each other or complement to each other?
In a vmware environment, vSphere HA is used for high availability, DRS is distributed resource scheduling. As the name suggests HA is to make sure vmware systems are always up and running. DRS is related to performace in vmware environment
vSphere HA – In case of host failure failover is possible. Once the failed host comes back this is not made master again
DRS – Depending on the hosts that are part of DRS, based on affinity and non-affinity rules the virtual machines are distributed across hosts. The summary shows the state which in most cases is balanced
Now, can DRS supplement vsphere. Answer is DRS can be implemented independent of vSphere HA, vSphere HA is independent of DRS. Ideally they complement each other. In most real-time cases both are in place. If host faile vmotion of machines happens owing to vsphere. Once the failed host comes back, resources are distributed with DRS implementation
46) In which scenario the vSphere HA will never work?
When there arises a scenario wherein datastore is not accessible vSphere HA will never work. There are more reasons from vmkernel networking etc
47) I see some vmsn files in my datastore folder. What are those?
Snapshots created in virtual machines are stored as snapshot files vmsn in the datastore. Snapshots created and stores will be given a name that is reflected in these vmsn files
48) Is vmware supported in MAC?
Yes. With latest versions vmware is supported in MAC as well. It is to be noted that there are some hardware specific issues related to MAC. To address these issues more information needs to be added to vmx file
49) What is the operating system requirement for running vcenter?
In case of virtual machines windows 2008, windows 2012 OS is needed for running vcenter
In case of physical box with windows 2008 or windows 2012 OS vcenter is supported
Vcenter is supported on top of vmware virtual appliance as well
50) What is a virtual appliance?
Virtual appliance is a pre-configured virtual machine that can be used for many different purposes. One common usage is vcenter virtual appliance, veeam the latest replication software from vmware is a virtual appliance as well
51) Why do we make use of vcenter in virtualized environment?
Vcenter is the centralized management platform used to administer hosts, implement features like high availability, DRS etc. Though there are many tasks that can be accomplished directly from within esx host client a central inventory that manages and maintains all hosts is vcenter
52) My database team feels that vm tools cause performance problems. Can I remove them?
Nope. Vm tools are 100% recommended to be run in virtual machines. In best practice all the virtual machines should have vm tools in place
53) Is syslog collector in vsphere same as syslog in ESXi host?
In ESXi host while we launch DCUI tool there is an option to access system logs called syslog. This is a Linux implementation. Vmware photon OS is based on Linux only. This is different than syslog collector in vsphere
54) What is stored in vcenter database?
vCenter database acts as centralized repository storing information about hosts that are added to vcenter inventory. In addition to this real-time performacne metrics, statistics is stored in this database
55) What are templates?
Templates are owned and stored within vcenter. Templates are protected entities within vcenter. Virtual machines need to be powered off to be created as templates that are stored in vcenter. These templates are deployed to replicate these virtual machines
56) What happens to distributed virtual switches when vcenter is down?
Distributed virtual switches are owned by vcenter. Once the vcenter goes down, the vmware network remains unaffected. Changes to switches can’t be done until vcenter server is back up and running
57) What is vsphere client?
This is a new browser based tool in vmware 6.5. The traditional tool used to manage hosts is vsphere web client
58) What is vmware CEIP?
CEIP is vmware customer experience improvement program
59) What is a server template?
In an environment typically in a startup setup without any product in place, vmware templates are created after installation of operating system, installation of patches etc. This is a template with no applications installed. These templates can be easily deployed and customized using sysprep tool. These are called server templates
60) How do you choose the LUN while creating NFS datastore?
In vmware environment, while we try to create NFS datastore using vSphere web client, there is no provision to choose LUN or disks from drop-down menu. In a NFS setup this is a configuration that is taken care of by NFS file server. This is not the case while we create VMFS datastore
61) What is vswp file?
Swap files in traditional systems are stored in shared storage. Now, the swap files are stored in local SSD. The vswp file is swap file
62) What is ballooning?
Vmware tools needed on virtual machines for swap out. This is ballooning
63) What is number of cores?
Cores in virtual machines translate to number of cpu’s in real-time
64) You log into datastore of a virtual machine. What are all the files do you see there? Can you explain the significance of each one of them?
Virtual machine configuration file – .vmx file. This file as the name suggests stores the configuration information of virtual machines. In case of MAC to fix the hardware issues this file needs to be modified and additional information needs to be included herein
Virtual machine BIOS – .nvram
Virtual machine swap file – .vswp
Virtual machine suspended state file – .vmss

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Selenium interview questions

What is test automation?
Test automation is the process of making use of software like selenium to automate the execution of tests, perform outcome comparison with expected outcome.
What is test automation framework?
Test automation in simple words is the automation of testing processes. Automation framework is a system built with needed components to perform this process. When it comes to test automation it is a framework that determines, controls the automation of a specific product. Automation framework is a system built on set of rules targeted towards testing a specific product
What is the advantage of test automation framework?
Automation is coded. This code can be reused for automating many test cases
Little manual work is needed once testing is automated
Testing cost reduction
One time development of code and framework can be reused multiple times
What are the testing types supported by selenium?
Regression testing
Functional testing
smoke testing
sanity testing
When is xpath used with selenium webdriver?
For traversing and finding elements within a document xpath is used. Elements that can’t be found using locators like id, class, name etc in a webpage can be easily located using xpath which is a syntax used for addressing into a document
What are the types of xpath?
Xpath falls into one of the following categories:
Absolute xpath – xpath single forward slash is used to locate the document root as per xpath expression. It is a direct way to find an element in a webage. If a change is made in the lement path the xpath will fail
Relative xpath – This starts with double forward slashes. This is used to search for the element anywhere within the document. This is common xpath expression widely used
What can be tested using selesense commands?
Selesense commands are selenium commands used for web application testing. A tester can make use of the selesense commands to perform the following:
Check broken links
Check for existence of UI objects
Ajax functionality testing
Alert testing
list option testing
windows testing
What are all the types of selesense commands?
Commands give direction to selenium automation engine on what needs to be done. Selesense commands fall into one of the following categories:
Actions commands
Accessors commands
Assertions commands
What are the components of selenium toolsuite?
Selenium tool suite is composed of multiple software tools.Detailed information and description of each and every software in tool suite is as follows :
Selenium IDE :
Selenium IDE, Integrated Development Environment is used for building test scripts. It is well integrated with web browsers and is a prototype tool.
It is based on simple concept of record and play back.
It isnothing but a firefox plugin that is well integrated with web browser, has a handy user interface and used for developing automated tests.
Record and playbac is simple record of steps that a user performs. These actions are stored as reusable scripts. These scripts are portable across many different
What is pip?
To install packages related to python pip utility can be made use of
How do you install a package with pip in python environment?
pip install [packagename]
How do you install selenium web driver using pip?
pip the utility used to install packages in a python environment will help us install selenium webdriver using simple syntax
pip install selenium
What is a selenium locator?
A selenium locator is an address that identifies the web element uniquely in a webpage. There are many different locators in selenium as follows:
XPath – standard navigation tool for xml
CSS Selector – this can be tag and id, tag and class, tag and attribute, tag class and attribute, inner text
DOM – The document object model is standard for navigation through html element tree

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Schema Password Repository Creation oracle fusion middleware

Just as we choose same password for all the default database accounts say SYS,SYSTEM,SYSMAN,DBSNMP, we can choose same password for all the schemas or different passwords while creating a repository using repository creation utility.
1) We can specify same schema passwords for all the schemas
2) We can make use of main schema password for auxillary schema
3) We can make use of different schema passwords for different schemas
Value of Custom Variable Master Repository ID(001) is invalid. Value should be a number:
I tried installing and creating a repository using repository creation utility. I specified the value of Master Repository ID as a alphabetic name. I got the following error :
Value of Custom Variable Master Repository ID(001) is invalid. Value should be a number.
solution :
I changed it to number and the issue got fixed. It is to be noted that even the work repository ID should be a valid numeral.

Oracle Transaction Controls Governor overview

What is Oracle TCG?
Oracle TCG stands for Oracle Transaction Controls Governor.

What is the use of oracle TCG?
Oracle TCG helps to ensure that individual transactions are safe.

How does oracle TCG achieve transaction security?
Models can be defined. Models specify the circumstances under which transactions pose risk.

How are the models defined?
Models are defined on an individual transaction basis.

Oracle spatial interview questions

What is an oracle spatial?
Oracle spatial is an integrated set of functions and procedures that enables spatial data to be stored,accessed,analyzed quickly in an oracle database.
What are spatial data?
Spatial objects exist in real or conceptual space and details on location of objects in this space represent the spatial data.
What is a geometry?
A geometry is an ordered sequence of vertices that are connected by lines or circular arcs.
Name few geometry types:-
Commonly used geometry types are points and point clusters,line strings,n-point polygon,arc line strings,arc polygons,compound polygons,compound line strings,circles,optimized rectangles.
What is a data model?
Data model is a hierarchical geometric model that represents spatial data in form of layers.Layers are made of geometry which in turn are made of elements.

Data structures interview questions

What is a data structure?
The study of way in which a data/information is stored in a machine in data structure.
Give examples of some data structures:-
Stack, Queue, Graphs, Linked lists are some popular data structures. They specify the way in which data is stored. Each and every data structure has some unique significance
Where are data structures most important?
In earlier days where storage used to be too costly data structures had a major significance. Now-a-days high level critical real-time environments where millions of transactions happen, data structures form the blood of such systems. Good example would be rel-time financial transactions such as stock trading systems which make use of C++/C and such languages make use of data structure to a great extent
What is a Stack?
A stack is generally referred to as LIFO – Last In First Out. Most recent data occupies the top slot, oldest data is at the bottom. Stack is unidirectional in nature
What is a queue?
Queue is FIFO – First In first Out. Queue is a bi-directional data structure. It can be considered equivalent to a rod with both ends open. If we put information from one end, they are made available at the other end
What are types of linked lists?
Linked lists can be single-linked lists, doubly-linked lists, circular linked lists

Oracle applications dba interview preparation free

How to check Forms Server in oracle applications?
Forms server runs as an executable in port 9000. HEre is the simple method to check the status of forms server in an Oracle Apps R12 environment
netstat -a|grep 9000
In R12 forms server is started in servlet mode by default. It is possible to start it in socket mode using adformsrvctl.sh script
In 11i forms server starts in servlet or socket mode using f60ctl
Give details on startup and shutdown sequence in oracle applications:-
Oracle Apps E-business suite R12 startup and shutdown sequence is same as in Oracle Apps 11i.
Startup Sequence :
1) Startup database listener – addlnctl.sh
2) Startup database – addbctl.sh
3) Startup Middletier/Application services – adstrtal.sh
Stop Sequence :
1) Stop Application/Middletier services – adstpall.sh
2) Stop database – addbctl.sh
3) Stop database listener – lsnrctl stop listener_name
What is use of adminappserver utility?
AdminAppServer Utility is used to create .dbc files that is used to secure the Oracle applications.
Adminappserver a javascript generates serverID in application server layer and sent to database server.On authenticating serverid database server provides the necessary access.This security mechanism is not activated by default.
Give details on Concurrent Manager Administration :-
Defining Work Shifts has been presented below :
1) Log into Oracle Applications
2) Select the System Administrator responsibility
3) Navigate :
Concurrent -> Manager -> Workshifts
4) From the menu select :
File -> New
As an alternate, we can also click New Icon in the toolbar
5) Create a new work shift, supplying the following fields :
Name : Name of work shift
From : Time
To : Time
From : Day
To : Day
Description : Some details on work shift
6) Save the work
7) Close the form
Give details on patching oracle applications :-
Oracle application patching is an essential duty of oracle applications dba. Patching is used to fix the issues in current release, include enhancements to the current release, upgrade to an upper version. There are different kinds of patches. Following are the list of major category of patches.
1) Individual patches
2) Mini Packs
3) Maintenance Packs
4) Family rollups
5) Family consolidated upgrade patches
What is the File system structure in oracle applications R12?
db/apps_st/data – directory is located on the database node machine, and contains the system tablespaces, redo log files, data tablespaces, index tablespaces, and database files
db/tech_st/10.2.0 – directory is located on the database node machine, and contains the ORACLE_HOME for the Oracle10g database
apps/apps_st/appl (APPL_TOP) – directory contains the product directories and files for Oracle Applications
apps/apps_st/comn (COMMON_TOP) – directory contains Java classes, HTML pages, and other files and directories used by multiple products
apps/tech_st/10.1.2 – directory contains the ORACLE_HOME used for the Applications technology stack tools components
apps/tech_st/10.1.3 – directory contains the ORACLE_HOME used for the Applications technology stack Java components
What is an oracle AIA?
AIA,Oracle AIA, Application Integration Architecture is a proposal from Oracle corporation that has come out on May 2007.It is the Oracles way of implementing Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).
As per Oracle Corporation, AIA (Application Integration Architecture) provides customers, partners with the capability to more easily integrate and orchestrate information and support transactions within a business process across multiple systems.It helps us look at the holistic picture of our business processes.This creates interoperability across applications.

Oracle business intelligence obiee interview prep

What is OBIEE?
OBIEE stands for Oracle Business Intelligence Enerprise Edition.It is Oracle’s set of business intelligence tools.OBIEE as it is popularly called is the BI solution from Oracle corporation. It is flaming hot in market and if you have basic knowledge on PL/SQL it is pretty easy to fit in OBIEE developer domain. OBIEE administration is easy and straight forward.
After installation obiee can be accessed at http://servername:9704/
We can click on Launch AS Console at Right corner and log onto Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Application Server Console. Login using default admin user oc4jadmin and password created in installation steps
What does OBIEE comprise of?
OBIEE comprises of suite of tools from Siebel Analytics
What is OBIEEPlus?
OBIEE Plus = OBIEE + Hyperion tool suite.
Give details on NQSConfig.INI File:-
Oracle BI(Business Intelligence) EE (Enterprise edition) (OBIEE) – NQSConfig.INI File is the configuration file in Oracle BI EE(OBIEE).It is used for configuring the clustering of BI server and configuring cluster controller.Location of NQSconfig.ini file – ORACLEBI/server/config/directory
While creating OBIEE cluster, we need to install BI server on dedicated servers and configure each and every node to join the cluster.Primary cluster control is one node among the nodes participating in clustering. Primary cluster control receives connection requests and forwards it to one of the nodes in the cluster.This acts as the master.Secondary cluster controller acts as backup for primary cluster controller
NQSConfig.INI File Configuration Parameters are as follows:
1) CLUSTER_PARTICIPANT – This tells BI server to look into NQSConfig.INI file for further information on how to connect into cluster. Values : YES|NO
2) REPOSITORY_PUBLISHING_DIRECTORY – Common directory where nodes in cluster can look into for any modification. Value : Directory Path
3) REQUIRE_PUBLISHING_DIRECTORY – Tells BI server to start or not to start if publishing directory is not found. Values : YES|NO
5) PRIMARY_CONTROLLER – Primary node name
6) SECONDARY_CONTROLLER – Secondary node name
7) SERVERS – participating servers; comma seperated
8) MASTER_SERVER – master server name
ORA-00600: internal error code arguments: [733] [538986556] [pga heap] in OBIEE env:-
While we try to bring up a database using startup command, building a cube in OBIEE env the ORA-600 error can likely occur. It has been found that the root cause of this issue happens to be pga_aggregate_target value is too small and needs to be fixed
The new parameter in Oracle 12c pga_aggregate_limit can be set to appropriate value to fix this issue. In versions prior to 12c , value of pga_aggregate_target can be set appropriately In OBIEE env in versions prior to 12c, fix is to partition the dimension as this will help us build cubes in parallel
Oracle BI (Business Intelligence) (OBI) is formed of the following components :
1) Oracle BI spread sheet add-in
2) Oracle BI discoverer
3) Oracle BI beans
4) Oracle BI reports
5) Oracle BI warehouse builder
6) Oracle Data Mining
7) OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) option to the Oracle database 10g
8) Oracle Database 10g
Oracle Database 11g BI (Business Intelligence) and Datawarehousing features :-
Oracle database 11g has a rich set of Business Intelligence(BI) and datawarehousing features.Some of the major salient features include :
1) Partitioning feature – Interval partitioning, extended composite partitioning, reference partitioning, system partitioning, system-managed domain indexes
2) Virtual columns feature related to statistics collection
3) Improved Oracle Data Pump features
4) Improved Materialized views features
5) Pivot clause
6) Unpivot clause
7) Table compression
Oracle BI (Business Intelligence) Administration Tool :-
1) Oracle BI Administration Tool is a windows application.
2) Oracle BI administrator can create and edit repositories using oracle BI administration tool.
3) Oracle BI administration tool has a number of wizards and utilities. They can be used to perform various tasks replacing column,table,generating and deploying metadata dictionary, removing unused physical objects,calculations etc
Oracle Business Intelligence (OBI) Infrastructure Components :-
Oracle Business Intelligence (OBI) Infrastructure Components are as follows :
1) Business intelligence server
2) Business intelligence presentation services
3) Business intelligence presentation services plug-in
4) Busiess intelligence scheduler
5) Business intelligence administration tools
6) Business intelligence cluster controller
7) Business intelligence client
8) Business intelligence ODBC driver
9) Business intelligence JDBC driver
10) Business intelligence system management
11) Business intelligence catalog manager
12) Business intelligence job manager
13) Business intelligence publisher
14) Business intelligence disconnected client
15) Business intelligence publisher desktop
16) Business intelligence open intelligence interface
17) Business intelligence office plug-in
18) Business intelligence briefing book reader
Oracle Datawarehouse Application Console A Quick Look :-
Oracle data warehouse application console also called DAC is an application from Oracle corporation that helps us create and schedule ETL taskflows for informatica server. All data warehousing processes including scheduling, loading of eTL, configuring subject areas as loaded using DAC
Oracle management agent collects all the metrics from target and is visible in all metrics page
Metrica are broadly classified as
1) ETL Performance Metrics – completed tasks, failed tasks, queued tasks, runnabel tasks, running tasks, total tasks
2) ETL Run metircs – completed steps, etl definition, failed steps, running steps, status, total steps, end time, start time
3) Failed ETL run metrics
4) Response metrics
5) ETL run logic metrics

Oracle vmware interview prep

What is Oracle VM?
Oracle VM is the latest virtualization technology from oracle. It is built upon the open source project Xen.Oracle VM is the virtualization solution from Oracle Corporation. Recent version on Oracle VM is Oracle VM 2.1.2.Oracle VM Server is a self-contained virtualization environment that runs various virtual machines.It is built on top of Xen Hypervisor which is a open source virtual monitoring software developed by Cambridge University Professors.
Oracle VM is a Virtualization solution from Oracle.
What are the components of Oracle VM?
Oracle VM Server comprises of an Oracle VM Agent, a Linux Kernel.Oracle VM includes :
1) Oracle VM Server
2) Oracle VM Manager
What is a Oracle VM Manager?
It is a web-based GUI used to administer Oracle VM(virtual machines).It is used to perform a host of administrative tasks like virtual machine creation,dropping,managing virtual machines.
What is Oracle VM Agent?
Oracle VM Server communicates with Oracle VM Manager using Oracle VM Agent.
What are the components that constitute Oracle VM?
Oracle VM is composed of Oracle VM Server ,the software component that is used for virtualization provisioning and Oracle VM Manager a GUI tool used to control VM Server.
What is an Oracle VM Agent?
VM agent is a component of Oracle VM Server.It is the communication medium between the Oracle VM manager and the Oracle VM Server.
What is dom0?
Dom0 refers to the Domain0 which is the refernce given to Oracle VM Server.
What is domu?
Domu refers to unprivileged domains.
What are the types of server pools?
There are three major types of server pools namely Master Server,Utility Server,Virtual Servers.
Give details on oracle exalogic and inherent virtualization utilization:-
Oracle the 3rd biggest software and hardware giant has finally unleashed the cloud in a box. It has been rightly branded exalogic. In a recent conference larry elson Oracle CEO unleashed this interesting exalogic which has server,storage,network everything built in a box and named exalogic. Companies will find this interesting as it is going to be easy to run oracle applications in this box. In general aggregating resources and sharing it among companies form cloud computing definition. Exalogic has inherent virtualization provision that will make the resource provisioning more powerful.It is interesting to note that salesforce.com the cloud leader in market introduced vmware virtualization in its cloud platform under brand name vmforce. Exalogic is expected to take over major share of salesforce soon
Give details on Oracle VM Server Utilities and Configuration Files:-
A brief listing of various Oracle VM server utilities is given here:
virt-install – Oracle VM Server Command-line utility used to create Virtual Machines(guests/guest operating systems).
xm – Oracle VM Server Command-line tools used to manage domains.
xm migrate – Oracle VM server command to migrate domains.
/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp – Oracle VM Server Configuration Files.Onces changes are made to this file,we must restart the Oracle VM server for the changes to take effect.
Oracle VM Server Repository – Used to store ISOs,guest and live migrations.
/opt/ovs-agent-2.2 – Default Installation Location of Oracle VM Agent.Oracle VM agent is installed along with the Oracle VM Server.It doesnt need seperate installation.
/opt/ovs-agent-2.2/logs/ovs_trace.log – Oracle VM Agent Installation logs.
ovs-agent – Oracle VM Agent command-line tool allows us to configure and control Oracle VM Agent.
service ovs-agent configure – command to configure Oracle VM Agent.This command is run as a root user
What is Oracle VM(Virtualization) – xm tool?
Oracle VM(Virtualization) – xm tool is the Oracle VM Server management command-line management tool that creates, destroys, manages and migrates guests.
What are guests?
A guest is a virtualized operating system running within a domain. A guest operating system may be paravirtualized or hardware virtualized. Multiple guests can run on the same Oracle VM Server.
What is a domain?
A domain is a configurable set of resources, including memory, virtual CPUs, network devices and disk devices, in which virtual machines run. A domain is granted virtual resources and can be started, stopped and rebooted independently
What is a virtual machine?
A virtual machine is a guest operating system and its associated application software.
What are the two modes in which guest/guest os can be run?
Oracle VM Server guest operating systems may run in one of two modes, paravirtualized or hardware virtualized.
What is paravirtualized mode?
In paravirtualized mode, the operating system guest kernel is recompiled to be made aware of the virtual environment. This allows the paravirtualized guest to run at near native speed, since most memory, disk and network accesses are optimized for maximum performance.
What is hardware virtualized mode?
The hardware virtualizated mode is available (either Intel VT or AMD SVM), for the guest operating system to run completely unmodified. This hardware virtualized fully-virtualized guest is carefully monitored and trapped by Oracle VM Server when any instruction is executed which would violate the isolation with other guests or dom0.
What is the prerequisite for running xm command?
The xm command requires xend daemon to be started.
Give the syntax of xm command?
xm command can be used as follows :
xm [option] [argument]
Give the various xm options and their usage:-
console {domain-id} – Attaches to a domain’s console.
create [-c] {config-file [name=value …]} – Creates a domain based on the entries in the config-file.Entering the -c parameter attaches to the domain’s console when the domain is created and started.We can also enter name value pairs to override variables in the config-file using the name=value parameter.
destroy {domain-id} – Immediately terminates a domain.
dmesg [–clear] – Displays message buffer logs similar in format to the equivalent to the dmesg command in the Linux kernel.
help [–long] [option] – Displays help on the xm command, and its options.The –long option displays full help on xm commands, grouped by function.Enter a command name as an option to the xm command to get help only on that command.
info – Displays information about the host computer.
list [–long –label] [domain-id, …] – Displays information on all the running domains.The –long option displays full information on running domains.Enter the domain-id as an option to the xm command to get information on only that domain, or a set of domains.
log – Displays logs similar in format to the equivalent for the Linux kernel. The log file is located at /var/log/xend.log.
migrate {domain-id} {host} [-l –live] [-r=MB –resource=MB] – Migrates a domain to another computer.The domain-id parameter is the domain to migrate.The host parameter is the target computer.The –live parameter migrates the domain without shutting down the domain.The –resource parameter sets the maximum amount of Megabytes to be used.
new [config-file] [option …] [name-=value …] – Adds a domain to Oracle VM Server domain management.
pause {domain-id} – Pauses the execution of a domain.
reboot [–all] [–wait] [domain-id] – Reboots a domain.The –all parameter reboots all domains.The –wait parameter waits for the domain to reboot before returning control to the console.
restore {statefile} – Restores a domain from a saved state.
save {domain-id} {statefile} – saves a domain state so that it can be restored at a later date.
shutdown [-a] [-w] [domain-id] – Shuts down a domain gracefully.The -a parameter shuts down all domains.The -w parameter waits for the domain to shut down before returning control to the console.
top – Displays real time monitoring information of the host and domains.
unpause {domain-id} – unpauses a paused domain.
Give details on xm new option:-
new [config-file] [option …] [name-=

value …]

Adds a domain to Oracle VM Server domain management.
We can set domain creation parameters with a number of command-line options, a Python script (with the –defconfig parameter), or an SXP configuration file (the –config parameter).
We can set configuration variables with name=value pairs, for example vmid=3 sets vmid to 3.
The config-file parameter is the location of the domain configuration file.
The option parameter is one or more of the following:
[-h –help]
Displays help on the command.
Prints the available configuration variables for the configuration script.
[-q –quiet]
Searches the location given in path for configuration scripts. The value of path is a colon-separated directory list.
[-f=file –defconfig=file]
Uses the given Python configuration script. The script is loaded after arguments have been processed. Each command-line option sets a configuration variable named after its long option name, and these variables are placed in the environment of the script before it is loaded. Variables for options that may be repeated have list values. Other variables can be set using name=value on the command-line. After the script is loaded, values that were not set on the command-line are replaced by the values set in the script.
[-F=file –config=file]
Sets the domain configuration to use SXP. SXP is the underlying configuration format used by Xen. SXP configurations can be hand-written or generated from Python configuration scripts, using the –dryrun option to print the configuration.
[-n –dryrun]
Prints the resulting configuration in SXP, but does not create the domain.
[-x –xmldryrun]
Prints the resulting configuration in XML, but does not create the domain.
[-s –skipdtd]
Skips DTD checking and XML checks before domain creation. This option is experimental and may slow down the creation of domains.
[-p –paused]
Leaves the domain paused after it is created.
[-c –console_autoconnect]
Connects to the console after the domain is created.
Usage Example :
xm new /home/myhome/myconfig