Selenium interview questions

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What is test automation?
Test automation is the process of making use of software like selenium to automate the execution of tests, perform outcome comparison with expected outcome.
What is test automation framework?
Test automation in simple words is the automation of testing processes. Automation framework is a system built with needed components to perform this process. When it comes to test automation it is a framework that determines, controls the automation of a specific product. Automation framework is a system built on set of rules targeted towards testing a specific product
What is the advantage of test automation framework?
Automation is coded. This code can be reused for automating many test cases
Little manual work is needed once testing is automated
Testing cost reduction
One time development of code and framework can be reused multiple times
What are the testing types supported by selenium?
Regression testing
Functional testing
smoke testing
sanity testing
When is xpath used with selenium webdriver?
For traversing and finding elements within a document xpath is used. Elements that can’t be found using locators like id, class, name etc in a webpage can be easily located using xpath which is a syntax used for addressing into a document
What are the types of xpath?
Xpath falls into one of the following categories:
Absolute xpath – xpath single forward slash is used to locate the document root as per xpath expression. It is a direct way to find an element in a webage. If a change is made in the lement path the xpath will fail
Relative xpath – This starts with double forward slashes. This is used to search for the element anywhere within the document. This is common xpath expression widely used
What can be tested using selesense commands?
Selesense commands are selenium commands used for web application testing. A tester can make use of the selesense commands to perform the following:
Check broken links
Check for existence of UI objects
Ajax functionality testing
Alert testing
list option testing
windows testing
What are all the types of selesense commands?
Commands give direction to selenium automation engine on what needs to be done. Selesense commands fall into one of the following categories:
Actions commands
Accessors commands
Assertions commands
What are the components of selenium toolsuite?
Selenium tool suite is composed of multiple software tools.Detailed information and description of each and every software in tool suite is as follows :
Selenium IDE :
Selenium IDE, Integrated Development Environment is used for building test scripts. It is well integrated with web browsers and is a prototype tool.
It is based on simple concept of record and play back.
It isnothing but a firefox plugin that is well integrated with web browser, has a handy user interface and used for developing automated tests.
Record and playbac is simple record of steps that a user performs. These actions are stored as reusable scripts. These scripts are portable across many different
What is pip?
To install packages related to python pip utility can be made use of
How do you install a package with pip in python environment?
pip install [packagename]
How do you install selenium web driver using pip?
pip the utility used to install packages in a python environment will help us install selenium webdriver using simple syntax
pip install selenium
What is a selenium locator?
A selenium locator is an address that identifies the web element uniquely in a webpage. There are many different locators in selenium as follows:
ID
Classname
Name
Tagname
LinkText
PartialLinkText
XPath – standard navigation tool for xml
CSS Selector – this can be tag and id, tag and class, tag and attribute, tag class and attribute, inner text
DOM – The document object model is standard for navigation through html element tree
Can you explain about Selenium?
Selenium is an open source software testing framework used for automating web UI applications.
What are the different components that Selenium supports?
• Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
• Selenium Client API
• Selenium Remote Control
• Selenium WebDriver
• Selenium Grid
What are the main advantages of using Selenium?
• Is an open source reliable/robust browser based automation tool for automating web UI applications
• Scalable across environments
• Easily portable in different browser environment by using the appropriate browser driver
• Can be built in different languages based on what language the company is using
• Automated tests can be distributed across different machines for parallel execution of tests
What is the main disadvantage of using Selenium?
• Selenium supports web based application and does not provide support for windows based applications
• Requires a high technical expertise to build robust automation tests using selenium web driver
• Requires third party framework tools for report generation, object identification etc
What browsers are supported in Selenium?
• Internet Explorer
• Firefox
• Google Chrome
• Safari
• Opera
What operating systems does Selenium support?
• Windows
• Linux
• Apple OS
What languages does Selenium support?
• C#
• Java
• JavaScript
• Python
• Ruby
• Perl
• PHP
• Objective C
Can Selenium be used to test web services?
Yes, selenium can be used to test web services using SOAP UI. We use Groovy script to integrate Selenium with SOAP UI
Using selenium web driver list the different ways that you locate elements?
To locate web elements we use findElement (or) findElements method.
The different ways to locate a web element is as follows:
• By.name()
• By.id()
• By.tagName()
• By.className()
• By.linkText()
• By.partialLinkText()
• By.xpath()
• By.cssSelector()
What is XPath?
XPath is a way of identifying elements in a web page. The syntax for XPath is:

Xpath=//tagname[@attribute=’value’]
Where,
// : Select current node.
Tagname: Tagname of the particular node.
@: Select attribute.
Attribute: Attribute name of the node.
Value: Value of the attribute.
What are the different flavors of XPath?
• Absolute XPath
• Relative XPath
How do you launch different browsers in selenium web driver?
By instantiating the appropriate browser driver and the using the handle to do different things in that browser (Ex: Load a URL, finding elements in the web page etc)
How do you clear a text from textbox?
By using clear() method on a web element.
Ex:
If a textbox has been instantiated before and the testBox contains values, then use, textBox.clear() to clear the values in the test box.
What is the difference between close and quit command?
The quit command will kill the driver, driver server and all associated browser windows whereas the close command only closes the current browser windows
The close command only closes the browser window the driver has focus on.
What is implicit wait in Selenium?
Implicit wait time are common to all web elements and has a global timeout associated with it.
How do you refresh browser in selenium?
You cam refresh a browser using refresh command. This is called from the driver instance of a browser (Ex: driver.navigate().refresh()
How can cookies be deleted in Selenium?
Cookies can be deleted by selenium as follows:
• deleteCookie(Cookie cookie)
• deleteAllCookies()
• deleteCookieNamed(String name)
What is an explicit wait in Selenium?
Explicit wait times are used if we need to delay the wait time of a particular web element.
How can we check if an element is displayed in a webpage?
By using isDisplayed() method.
Ex: Webelement textBox is a Text Box. If we need to know if the textBox is displayed then we use textBox.isDisplayed() to verify if the textBox is displayed.
How can we check if an element is enabled in a webpage?
By using isEnabled() method
Explain about isSelected()method
This method is to check if a particular web element on a webpage is selected currently.

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ora-10458 standby database requires more recovery to be consistent

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ora-10458 standby database requires more recovery to be consistent issue has been reported from one of our customers this week. We logged into their dataguard servers both primary and standby environments to determine if there has been network connectivity issue. There was no network connectivity problem that can be verified and validated at operating system level using ping command.
From primary type ping standby_server_name
From standby type ping primary_server_name
We can also make use of tnsping from both primary and standby environments using service names and this returned successful messages
As a next step I checked the archival destination as specified in log_archive_dest_n parameter in primary and archives are stored in primary without any issues. In standby the archived redo logs are not shipped
Upon running the following query I got the error:
select error from v$archive_dest;
ora-16047: DGID mismatch between destination setting and target database
As a next step I logged into primary as sys user and disabled log_archive_Dest_State and then enabled log_archive_dest_State as follows:
alter system set log_archive_dest_state_n=defer;
alter system set log_archive_dest_state_n=enable;
Once the above command has been issues, archived started flowing onto standby and archived redo logs start getting applied as part of active dataguard managed recovery process

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AWS big data specialty certification


1) You have planned to come up with redshift cluster to support an upcoming project. You are looking for a way to reduce the total cost of ownership. How can you achieve this?
a) Ephemeral S3 buckets
b) Encryption algorithms
c) Compression algorithms
d) All of the above
Answer: b,c
2) You are making use of COPY command to load files onto redshift. Will redshift manifest allow you to load files that do not share the same prefix?
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: a
3) Why are single-line inserts slower with redshift?
a) Owing to row nature of redshift
b) Columnar nature of Redshift
c) Tabular nature of redshift
d) All of the above
Answer: b
4) You are in process of creating a table. Which among the following must be defined while table creation in AWS redshift. What are the required definition parameters?
a) The Table Name
b) RCU (Read Capacity Units)
c) WCU (Write Capacity Units)
d) DCU (Delete/Update Capacity Units)
e) The table capacity number of GB
f) Partition and Sort Keys
Answer: a,b,c,f
5) Does Amazon Redshift offer enhanced support for viewing external Redshift Spectrum tables
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: a
6) Will Machine Learning integrate directly with Redshift using the COPY command?
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: b
7) You have been asked to build custom applications that process or analyze streaming data for specialized needs. Which AWS Service will you make use of to accomplish this?
a) Amazon Kinesis Streams
b) Amazon Kinesis Analytics
c) Amazon LAMBDA
d) Amazon Spark
Answer: a
8) Can Federated Authentication with Single Sign-On be used with amazon redshift?
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: a
Explanation : This is a new feature that is possible with redshift based on press release from AWS released on august 11th 2017
9) How will you isolate amazon redshift clusters and secure them?
a) Amazon VPC
b) Amazon KMS
c) Server side encryption
d) all of the above
Answer: a
10) How long does each Kinesis firehose delivery stream stores data records in case the delivery destination is unavailable?
a) 12 hours
b) 24 hours
c) 48 hours
d) 72 hours
Answer: b
11) What is a shuffle phase in hadoop ecosystem?
a) Process of transferring from reducers back to mappers
b) Process of transferring from mappers to reducers
c) None of the above
Answer: b
12) Your security team has made it a mandate to encrypt all data before sending it to S3 and you will have to maintain the keys. Which encryption option will you choose?
a) SSE-KMS
b) SSE-S3
c) CSE-Custom
d) CSE-KMS
Answer: c
13) Client-Side Encryption with KMS-Managed Keys aka CSE-KMS is used by EMR cluster. How is key managed in this case?
a) S3 uses a customer master key that is managed in the Key Management Service to encrypt and decrypt the data before saving it to an S3 bucket
b) S3 uses a server generated key that is managed in the Key Management Service to encrypt and decrypt the data before saving it to an S3 bucket
c) EMR cluster uses a customer master key to encrypt data before sending it to Amazon S3 for storage and to decrypt the data after it is downloaded
d) All of the above
Answer: c
14) You have to create a visual that depicts one or two measures for a dimension. Which one will you choose?
a) Heat Map
b) Tree Map
c) Pivot Table
d) Scatter Plot
Answer: b
15) Your developers are fluent in python and are comfortable with tools that integrate with python. Which open-source tool will you recommend as business analyst to eb used for this project?
a) Jupyter Notebook
b) Hue
c) Ambari
d) Apache Zeppelin
Answer: a
16) What is SPICE in QuickSight?
a) SPICE is QuickSight’s Super-fast, Parallel, In-memory Calculation Engine
b) SPICE is QuickSight’s Super-fast, Parallel, In-memory analytical Engine
c) Not related to QuickSight
Answer: a

AWS big data specialty certification exam dumps

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1) If Kinesis Firehose experiences data delivery issues to S3, how long will it retry delivery to S3?
a) 7 hours
b) 7 days
c) 24 hours
d) 3 hours
Answer : c
2) You have to create a visual that depicts one or two measures for a dimension. Which one will you choose?
a) Heat Map
b) Tree Map
c) Pivot Table
d) Scatter Plot
Answer: b
3) You are looking for a way to reduce the amount of data stored in a Redshift cluster. How will you achieve that?
a) Compression algorithms
b) Encryption algorithms
c) Decryption algorithms
d) SPLUNK algorithms
Answer: a
4) How does UNLOAD automatically encrypts data files while writing the resulting file onto S3 from redshift?
a) CSE-S3 client side encryption S3
b) SSE-S3 server side encryption S3
c) ASE
d) SSH
Answer: b
5) What does area under curve mean that has a value 0.5?
a) This model is accurate
b) This model is not accurate
c) This creates lots of confidence
d) This creates less confidence beyond a guess
Answer: b,d
6) What is AUC?
a) Average unit computation
b) Average universal compulsion
c) Area under curve
d) None of the above
Answer: c
7) What does lower AUC mean?
a) improves accuracy of the prediction
c) reduces accuracy of prediction
b) mean of all predicted values
d) Mode of all predicted values
Answer: b
8) You have an auc value of 0.5. Does that mean that the guess is accurate and perfect?
a) Yes
b) No
c) Partially yes
Answer: c
Explanation: Value of 0.5 means that the guess is accurate but not a perfect guess but rather random guess
9) Can you make use of redshift manifest to automatically check files in S3 for data issues?
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: b
10) Can you control the encryption keys and cryptographic operations performed by the Hardware security module using cloudhsM?
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: a
11) You are in process of creating a table. Which among the following must be defined while table creation in AWS redshift. What are the required definition parameters?
a) The Table Name
b) RCU (Read Capacity Units)
c) WCU (Write Capacity Units)
d) DCU (Delete/Update Capacity Units)
e) The table capacity number of GB
f) Partition and Sort Keys
Answer: a,b,c,f
12) Can you run a EMR cluster in public subnet?
a) Yes
b) No
Answer: b
Explanation: Owing to compliance or security requirements we can run an EMR cluster in a private subnet with no public IP addresses or attached Internet Gateway
13) Your project makes use of redshift clusters. For security purpose you create a cluster with encryption enabled and load data into it. Now, you have been asked to present a cluster without encryption for final release what can you do?
a) Remove security keys from configuration folder
b) Remove encryption from live redshift cluster
c) Create a new redshift cluster without encryption, unload data onto S3 and reload onto new cluster
Answer: c
14) You are using on-perm HSM or cloudHSM while using security module with redshift. In addition to security what else is provided with this?
a) High availability
b) Scaling
c) Replication
d) Provisioning
Answer: a
15) CloudHSMis or on-perm HSM are the options that can be used while using hardware security module with Redshift. Is it true or false?
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
16) CloudHSMis the only option that can be used while using hardware security module with Redshift. Is it true or false?
a) True
b) False
Answer: b
17) You are making use of AWS key management service for encryption purpose. Will you make use of same keys or differnet keys or hybrid keys on case by case basis
a) same keys
b) different keys
c) hybrid keys
Answer: a
Explanation : AWS Key Management Service supports symmetric encryption where same keys are used to perform encryption and decryption
18) How is AWS key management service different than cloudHSM?
a) Both symmetric and asymmetric encryptions are supported in cloudHSM, only symmetric encryption is supported in key management service
b) CLoudHSM is used for security, key management service if for replication
c) The statement is wrong. Both are same
Answer: a
19) Which among the following are characteristics of cloudHSM?
a) High availability and durability
b) Single Tenancy
c) Usage based pricing
d) Both symmetric and asymmetric encryption support
e) Customer managed root of trust
Answer: b,d,e
20) In your hadoop ecosystem you are in shuffle phase. You want to secure the data that are in-transit between nodes within the cluster. How will you encrypt the data?
a) Data node encrypted shuffle
b) Hadoop encrypted shuffle
c) HDFS encrypted shuffle
d) All of the above
Answer: b

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