oratab oraenv pillars of oracle os configuration

Oracle databases that gets installed in linux operating system do need setting of variables including ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_SID, PATH,LD_LIBRARY_PATH etc. This task of configuring and maintaining variables of many different oracle homes that gets installed in a database server is made easy with the help of two files oratab, oraenv
oratab file – This file has details on ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:Y|N
where,
ORACLE_SID – System identifier
ORACLE_HOME – Oracle home directory
Y|N – Will the oracle restart automatically upon reboot of box
Internally, dbstart is used for starting oracle, dbshut is used to bring it down
oratab file is created inside /etc directory, in case of solaris this gets created within /var/opt/oracle
When we install oracle software, this file is created automatically. If for some reason this file is not created, we can manually create it inside the directory with the format specified above
oraenv File – oraenv file used oratab file to set OS variables. oraenv is an utility that is available inside ORACLE_HOME/bin. We can source this as . oraenv – There needs to be a space between dot and oraenv filename. oraenv utility can be used in both interactive and non-interactive ways
What happens when we source . oraenv?
We will be prompted to enter ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME values. USe export ORACLE_SID, export ORACLE_HOME to source and use oraenv in non-interactive way
What is importance of properly setting variables in oracle?
Utilities such as sql*plus, datapump, RMAN will work correctly only when OS variables for an oracle environment is set correctly

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Financial Certifications CFA,FRM,CTP,FINRA,CAIA

Finance is a evergreen sector. It is a great money spinner.Career in finance is lucrative. If a person has good quantitative skills and interested in taking up a career in finance, there are many options.Many people assume that MBA (Master Of Business Administration) is the only option of breaking into finance. MBA is a great course. Many people don’t have sufficient monetary reserves and time to take up MBA.
For such aspirants who desperately want to break into finance, there are many more options. We are going to discuss about all those options in detail in these posts.
Some common financial certifications popular in market, their requisite, cost of the course, information on resources needed to crack those certifications will be discussed in detail. Some of the most popular financial certifications are offered by institutes based out of USA. There are also popular financial certificatiosnfrom Canada, Switzerland (dealing with European Finance) etc.
A brief list of some popular Financial Certifications is given below :
1) Chartered Financial Analyst – CFA – Offered in 3 levels
2) FRM – Financial Risk Manager ( Offered In Full Version until November 2009; from 2010
onwards it is offered in two levels)
3) CIPM – Performance Analysis Certification. It is Again offered by CFA institute which offers the CFA certification
4) CFP – Chartered Financial Planner. Popular certification on financial planning
5) Series Exams from FINRA – Popular series Exams from Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), an institutional body from USA which governs organizations. Some popular exams are Series 7, Series 6, Series 26, Series 63, Series 65, Series 66, Series 4, Series 9 and 10, Series 23, Series 24, Series 27, Series 28, Series 39, Series 51, Series 53, Series 17, Series 37, Series 38, Series 11, Series 22, Series 42, Series 52, Series 55, Series 62,Series 72, Series 79, Series 82, Series 86, Series 87, Series 5, Series 3, Series 30, Series 31, Series 32, Series 14
6) CAIA – Specialized financial certification geared towards alternative investments including options, futures
7) CTP – Charteres Treasury Professionals serve as CFO in many organizations. It gives 360 degree coverage on financial aspects

Frm exam financial risk manager exam free practice questions part i

1. Asset Liquidity risk can be minimized by taking the following action
A. Limit the trading on an asset
B. Use right modeling techniques to manage risk
C. Require collateral requirement of counterparties
D. All of the above

Answer: A

2. Greece is about to default because of failing to meet its debt obligation. This is an example of
A. Settlement Risk
B. Credit Risk
C. Market Risk
D. Sovereign Risk

Answer: D
3. Result of the portfolio theory of Harry Markowitz is:
A. Variance of return of portfolio < Weighed average of individual variances of portfolio securities, correlation between returns of 2 securities is greater than 1 B. Variance of return of portfolio > Weighed average of individual variances of portfolio securities, correlation between returns of 2 securities is greater than 1
C. Variance of return of portfolio < Weighed average of individual variances of portfolio securities, correlation between returns of 2 securities is less than 1 D. Variance of return of portfolio > Weighed average of individual variances of portfolio securities, correlation between returns of 2 securities is less than 1

Answer: C
4. Which of the following strategy a hedger uses to reduce a short exposure to an asset
A. Buy Short Futures contract or put option
B. Buy Long Futures contract or call option
C. Sell Short Futures contract or call option
D. Sell Long Futures contract or put option

Answer: B

5. Compute the variation margin amount for long position required at the end of second day with the following information;
Current price of contract =$985 (per 1 bar of gold)
Total purchase = 100 bars of gold
Initial margin deposited with the clearinghouse = $2000
Maintenance margin required = $1500
In first day of trading 1 bar of gold drops value from 985 to 980
In second day of trading gold drops value from 980 to 979.

A. $100
B. $0
C. $600
D. -$600

Answer: A

Explanation:
At end of first day buyers(long) margin account balance = (980-985)*100 = -500
Margin at end of first day =2000 -500 = 1500
At end of second day buyers(long) margin account balance = (979-980)*100
= -100
Margin balance at end of second day = 1500 – 100 = 1400
At this time the trader will get a margin call.
Variation margin = Maintenance Margin – Margin Balance
= 1500 – 1400 = 100


6.Company A defaults its payment obligation to Company B is an example of what risk?
A. Market Risk
B. Credit Risk
C. Operational Risk
D. Liquidity Risk

Answer: B

7. The risk that arises because of mismatch in the price of the hedging instrument and assent being hedged is:
A. Volatility Risk
B. Absolute Risk
C. Directional Risk
D. Basis Risk

Answer: D

8. Calculate the payoff for a short position in a forward contract given the delivery price is $30 and the spot price at the end of the contract is $45.
A. $15
B. -$15
C. $75
D. -$75

Answer: B

Explanation: Payoff to short position = Delivery Price – Spot price
= 30 – 45 = -15

9. Compute the variation margin amount for long position required at the end of second day with the following information;
Current price of contract =$985 (per 1 bar of gold)
Total purchase = 100 bars of gold
Initial margin deposited with the clearinghouse = $2000
Maintenance margin required = $1500
In first day of trading 1 bar of gold drops value from 985 to 980
In second day of trading gold drops value from 980 to 979.

A. $100
B. $0
C. $600
D. -$600

Answer: A

Explanation:
At end of first day buyers(long) margin account balance = (980-985)*100 = -500
Margin at end of first day =2000 -500 = 1500
At end of second day buyers(long) margin account balance = (979-980)*100
= -100
Margin balance at end of second day = 1500 – 100 = 1400
At this time the trader will get a margin call.
Variation margin = Maintenance Margin – Margin Balance
= 1500 – 1400 = 100
10.Company A defaults its payment obligation to Company B is an example of what risk?
A. Market Risk
B. Credit Risk
C. Operational Risk
D. Liquidity Risk

Answer: B

11. The risk that arises because of mismatch in the price of the hedging instrument and assent being hedged is:
A. Volatility Risk
B. Absolute Risk
C. Directional Risk
D. Basis Risk

Answer: D