Oracle dba linux mysql understanding

Assume Ali, a Linux system user, wrote the following bash shell script.

if [ -d $1 ]
echo $1 ” is a directory”
elif [ -f $1 ]
echo $1 ” is a file”
A. check if the argument is a directory or a files; “$1” is the argument that is being checked and is an
environment variable.
B. check if the argument is a directory or a files; “$1” is the argument and is accepted as a command line
argument by the script.
C. check if the argument is a directory or a files; “$1” is the argument and the script reads it in.
D. None of the above.
Answer: B
Assume Tom, a Linux system user, wrote the following bash shell script.
for i in 1 2 3 4 5
lpr report_file
What does the script achieve?
A. the script is incorrect; it does not use the loop-control-variable, “i” , inside the body of the loop.
B. Tom is trying to append headers from the files 1 through 5 to the file “report_file” and then print them.
C. Tom is trying to print 5 copies of the file “report_file”.
D. Tom is trying to add page numbers to the file “report_file”
Answer: C
Fred is a system administrator for a local university and needs to add accounts for 1000 new
computer science students. He would like to automate this process by writing a script. Which of the
choices below is a scripting language that Tom CANNOT use?
A. perl
B. awk
C. sed
D. jisp
Answer: D
John, the system administrator, has noticed that the system is running slow. He wants to find the
processes that are using the most resources. What should he do?
A. Use command “ps a” to give a constantly updated list of CPU-intensive processes.
B. Use command “ps a” to list the top 5 (five) processes with the highest priority.
C. Make the current foreground process the highest priority.
D. Use “top” to give a timed updated list of processes ranked by CPU usage.
Answer: D
The daemon that logs various kinds of system activity is __________.
A. logger
B. manager
C. systemd
D. syslogd
Answer: D
To configure the daemon that logs various kinds of system activity, you would modify the file:
A. /etc/syslog.conf
B. /usr/syslog.conf
C. /etc/slog.conf
D. /usr/etc/slog.conf
E. /etc/systemlog.conf
F. /usr/etc/systemlog.conf
Answer: A
Which of the following are valid reasons for using “df -h”? (Select all that apply)
A. A user wishes to know how many blocks are used by each file in his home directory.
B. The superuser wishes to know the percentage of the disk that is available.
C. The superuser wishes to know how many bytes of data each file system has used and the number of
bytes that are available.
D. The system administrator uses it for disk formatting.
Answer: BC
Assume Alladin is the superuser of a multiuser Linux system. He has two volumes, “/dev/hda1” and
“/dev/hda2”. He has created all user accounts in “/dev/hda2” and system software on “/dev/hda1”.
When Priya, a user in the system tried to create a file she got an error indicating that there was no
space left on the disk. In such a scenario, what should Alladin do?
A. Move a few user accounts from “hda2” to “hda1”.
B. Run “df” to see how much space each mounted file system consumes and then try to create space by
removing unnecessary files.
C. Run “df” ; rum “du” to find individual user’s disk usage and ask user to remove unnecessary files.
D. All of the above
Answer: D
Generally, the “du -s [target]” command is useful to the system administrator because __________.
A. it lets the system administrator select files based on size
B. it gives the total disk usage of a file or the total disk usage of a directory instead of reporting the disk
usage of each file within the directory
C. it can be used to shrink the disk space of the argument given
D. none of the above
Answer: B
The “top” command differs from “ps” in that it updates a display of the system status.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Which of the following are NOT valid scenarios for using “fuser”?
A. Wishing to reboot the system, the superuser uses “fuser” to find and kill all the processes that are using
devices so he can unmount them.
B. A user has so many shells open that he forgot where one is, so he wants to use “fuser” to find out.
C. A user wishes to unmount a device so she wants to use “fuser” to kill all processes using the device.
D. None of the above
Answer: D
Tom’s home directory is “/home/Tom”. His current working directory is “/var/spool/Tom/lp”. If he
types the “cd ~” command, he will
A. return to the parent directory of “lp”, “/var/spool/Tom”.
B. stay in the current directory.
C. return to his home directory, “/home/Tom”.
D. go to the root directory, “/”.
Answer: C
The command ____________ is used to set default file permissions for any newly created file(s).
A. mask
B. umask
C. fmask
D. createMask
Answer: B
Alex is a software developer for a company. He completed his annual report yesterday and is now
trying to print the report so he can submit it to his supervisor. However, Tom has forgotten the
name and the path of the report file. Which of the following commands should he use to obtain a
listing of recently modified files so that he may find the correct file?
A. find ~/ -mtime 2
B. whereis -time 2
C. which time 2
D. locate -t 2
E. grep ~/ -ctime 2
Answer: A
Tom, a user on a Linux machine, receives the following error messages when he searches for a file
using the “find” command:
find: /home/ftp/bin: Permission denied
find: /home/ftp/etc: Permission denied
Which of the following most likely caused these errors?
A. Tom is attempting to search directories that are not owned by him.
B. Tom does not have permission to search these directories.
C. Tom does not own this directory.
D. All of the above
Answer: B
Jack is a superuser on a Linux system. He is also the project leader of a development project called
YASH. Jack logs in as superuser and creates a directory called ‘/project/YASH’ for the members of
the development team. Jack issues the command “chmod 771 /project/YASH” to give appropriate
permission for the owner, group, and others. Which of the following is NOT true about the
permissions for the directory ‘/project/YASH’?
A. Jack is trying to give read, write, and execute permissions to the “group”.
B. “root” has read, write, and execute permissions for the directory ‘/project/YASH’.
C. “others” has only read permission to the directory
D. both the “owner” and the “group” have the same per missions
E. the “owner”, group”, and “other s” all have execute permissions
Answer: C
Jill is a strong supporter of Free software and wishes to contribute her software to the community.
She writes a C++ program that provides a GUI for FTP transfers. Her source code is in a single file
called ‘gui_ftp.c’. She copies the source file to the ftp site called ‘’ and would like to
give read, write, and execute permissions for the “owner” and “group”. Which one of the following
commands would she use to set permissions as described above?
A. chmod 723 gui_ftp.c
B. chmod 770 gui_ftp.c
C. chmod 718 gui_ftp.c
D. chmod 077 gui_ftp.c
Answer: B
The Linux operating system has several compression utilities common to all distributions which
every system administrator should know. Which of the choices below are NOT compression utilities.
(Select all that apply)
A. cpio
B. zcat
C. gzip
D. compress
E. gsmall
Answer: AE
Jack is a C++ programmer who often works on the Linux machine in his office. He has been
programming for many years and he has accumulated over five hundred megabytes of programs
stored in more than 25 directories. Now, Jack would like to backup the programs to his home
computer and plans to do this by creating a compressed archive and then using “ftp” to transfer the
data to his computer at home. Choose the option below which represents the correct order of the
steps that Jack should take to create a compressed archive. (Select the best answer)
A. Use “zcat” to create an archive and use “gzip” to compress the archive.
B. Use “zcat” to compress all of the files and then “tar” to create an archive.
C. Use “gunzip” to create a compressed form for each file.
D. Use “tar” with the “z” option to create a compressed archive in one step
Answer: D
Malcolm takes a compressed file called “test.gz” and renames it “test.123”. Later he returns and
renames the files again; this time he calls it “test.123.gz”. Will this file decompress? Why/Why not?
(Select the best answer)
A. Yes, since the “.gz” extension is a convention, not a requirement.
B. No, since it must have its original name.
C. Yes, the file will decompress, but it will need to be checked for errors (i.e., the “-c” checksum switch).
D. No, the “.gz” extension is a convention not a requirement, but the other part of the filename (i.e.,
otherpart.gz) must be the same as its original.
Answer: A
Incremental and differential backup is a backup that only includes newer files.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
The “tar” command can create an archive that spans more than one disk.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Jill was surfing the Internet when the power was disconnected from her office. What program will
run at reboot? Why? (Select the best answer)
A. defrag — because the file system may have errors
B. fsck — because the file system may have an incorrect mapping (wrong values in the inodes)
C. scandisk — because a power failure may leave some inodes with improper values
D. lin-chk — check the file system and then check to see if any files are missing
Answer: B
Tom needs to run the program “a.out,” which will take several hours to run. Naturally, he wants to
run this job at night, but does not want to remain logged in the entire time. What should he do?
A. Run the command “a.out”, then logout.
B. Run the command “a.out” with its priority increased by 10.
C. Run “nohup a.out” &, then logout.
D. Run “a.out” &, then logout.
Answer: C
“top” is a program that displays information about the system. Which of the following information
can NOT be found by running “top”?
A. current status of the swap partition
B. system load averages
C. status of the Linux native partition
D. state of system processes
E. system memory allocation
Answer: C
Jack is a system administrator who wants to run a program that is processor intensive (e.g.,
compiling the kernel). He expects the compilation to take several hours. In order to make the system
available to other users, which of the following will Jack use to decrease the priority of the program?
A. ps
B. top
C. nice
D. mean
E. nohup
Answer: C
In spite of its name, “kill” is a program that can send different types of signals of which only one will
force process termination.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
If Jill, a system administrator, types “vmstat” as root, then she should expect to see output that
contains __________.
A. Linux native file system statistics
B. per process memory allocation
C. information about swap partition(s) page usage
D. a histogram of virtual memory usage
E. the number of processes running in memory
Answer: C
Carefully examine the command below. Assume that the is valid.
kill ‘cat /var/run/’
What would the command do?
A. restart the web server and all of its children
B. halt and restart all web children but leave the parent process
C. stop all web services by killing the parent and subsequently killing the children processes
D. this is not a valid command and will do nothing
Answer: C
John, the system administrator, wishes to monitor closely the activity of users on the system. To do
this, he activates the accounting suite and returns the next day to check the results. What command
will he use to view a summarization of all collected data?
A. last
B. ac
C. sa
D. accton
E. lastcomm
F. bigac
Answer: C
The “/etc” directory contains many configuration files that relate to a service via a daemon. Which
daemon and what service does “/etc/printcap” relate to?
A. lprd, print quotas
B. lpd, printer configuration
C. lpqd, print quotas
D. xpd, X Window printer quotas and configuration
Answer: B
Which of the following would be used to insert a postscript file of 200 MBs into the printer queue?
A. lpq
B. lprm
C. lpc
D. lppost
E. lpr
Answer: E
Assuming you are the superuser, for each printer configured in the “/etc/printcap” file, which of the
following commands or programs can enable or disable the printer’s spooling queue?
A. lpr
B. lpq
C. lpc
D. lprm
E. lp
Answer: C
Tom, a Linux user, has sent a report to the printer queue, but then realizes he needs to make
corrections to the report. He wants to remove the report from the printer queue. He should:
A. ask the superuser to remove the report from the queue because, as a user, he does not have permission to
remove the report.
B. use the “kill” command to remove the report.
C. use the “lprm” command to remove the report.
D. use the “lpq” command to remove the job.
Answer: C
A package manager command such as “rpm -i package”, where package is the software being
installed, shows file placement as the software is installed.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
For what reasons would a system administrator choose not to use a package manager to install the
binary version of a program?
A. A system administrator can save a great deal of time by just downloading the source code.
B. In order to insure a corruption free version.
C. If performance was an issue, then compiling the source code could optimize the code for that computer.
D. If the processor cannot handle the often taxing demands of the package manager.
Answer: C
The Red Hat package manager is __________ and the Debian package manager is __________.
A. rhpm, dpm
B. rhpm, there isn’t one
C. rpm, dpm
D. rpm, dselect
Answer: D
Name the graphical display system that allows interaction with a remote graphical environment:
A. xrsh
B. VMWare
C. telnet plus
D. Virtual Network Computing
Answer: D
Which of the following is the best description of Virtual Network Computing?
A. A GUI-based interface that runs on a Linux box and allows Windows to be booted on top of the Linux
operating system.
B. A GUI-based program that runs on the Windows platform and allows Linux to view the localhost with a
simulated Windows desktop.
C. A multiple platform program that connects one machine type to another using each machine’s native
D. A GUI-based program common to most X Window systems that allows for some advanced features
(i.e., colored xterms)
Answer: C
Which of the following is not true about Virtual Network Computing?
A. It is platform independent.
B. It allows for several users to be using the same windows box at the same time.
C. It allows for multiple machines on the network to be dedicated to performing the same task, thus
creating clusters.
D. It’s software creates a host-to-host session.
Answer: C
What would the following command do?
mail root -s html < /var/html.access_log A. Mail a copy of the html access log to root and then delete the file. B. Send to root a message with the subject "html < /var/html.access_log". C. Send to root a message containing the html access log. D. Send from root a message where the body will be the html.access_log file. Answer: C The following is an example of a ".forward" file found in user Audrey's home directory. /audrey /usr/opt/bin/mail Which of the actions below best describes what will happen when user "audrey" receives mail? A. (i) saves a copy of the mail locally; (ii) forwards a copy of the mail to using the "mail" program found in "/usr/opt/bin" B. (i) saves a copy locally; (ii) forwards a copy to; (iii) appends it to the mail files stored in the "/usr/opt/bin" C. (i) runs a program called "audrey" that is found in the root directory; (ii) forwards a copy of the mail to using the "mail" program found in "/usr/opt/bin" D. (i) saves a copy locally; (ii) forwards the mail to (iii)runs a program called mail E. (i) runs a program "audrey" that is found in the root directory; (ii) forwards the mail to; (iii) runs a program called "/usr/opt/bin" Answer: D What output will the following command generate? sendmail -bp -v A. an error message B. a list of mail that is currently in the mailers spool directory C. a readout of the log of error messages for sendmail D. a log containing mail activity for the past day E. a report containing a list of all un-delivered mail, and errors associated with the list. Answer: E Which of the following is NOT a news reader program? A. pine B. trn C. strn D. Netscape E. newsrc Answer: E __________ is a GUI news reader that, for many, has replaced the older command-line based news readers. A. Netscape B. xnewsrc C. winews D. rn E. outlook Answer: A Which of the following would NOT be found in an entry of the httpd.conf file for a web site? A. document root path B. html user name C. html group name D. server name E. path to mysql configuration file Answer: E A module loaded into an Apache Web server is: A. code to interpret a new class of directives B. a server, such as a news server C. a dynamic link library D. a virtual Apache for each user Answer: A Which of the following best describes a virtual hosting with Apache? A. A web server that relays web requests to other computers within the server's virtual private network. B. One that allows multiple Internet domain names to be associated with multiple IP addresses on the same host. C. A server that owns multiple physical network devices with only a single IP address. D. One that forwards web page requests to another server. Answer: B Apache is best described as __________. (Select the best answer) A. a multi-tasking web-client for Linux B. a web-server capable of responding to simultaneous download requests C. a slow front-end web-client with a fast back-end server D. a GUI-configurable web server for Linux Answer: B Which of the following best describes the function of the Apache directive "Document Root"? (Select the best answer) A. The httpd's home directory from which all web pages must branch off. B. The root directory of the default web page for the host. C. The root directory of each web page hosted on the server. D. The directory where all configuration files are located. Answer: C Carol, the system administrator, needs to add a menu to user John's "Afterstep" window manager. Which file must be edited in order to add the menu? A. /home/John/.afterrc B. /etc/.afterrc C. /home/John/.steprc D. /etc/.startrc Answer: C Harry, a user, needs to configure his window manager, "Window Maker." Where will he find the configuration file? A. .window B. .windowMaker C. ~/WindowMaker D. ~/GNUstep/WindowMaker/WindowMaker Answer: D Consider the following code taken from the ".xinitrc" file. What is the value that the WINDOWMANAGER should have at the end of the script assuming all window managers are present on the system and that WINDOWMANAGER was NOT previously set? if test -z "$WINDOWMANAGER" ; then if test -x /usr/X11R6/bin/kde ; then WINDOWMANAGER=/usr/X11R6/bin/kde elif test -x /usr/X11R6/bin/startkde ' then WINDOWMANAGER=/usr/X11R6/bin/startkde elif test -x / usr/X11R6/bin/fvwm2 ; then WINDOWMANAGER=/usr/X11R6/bin/fvwm2 elif test -x / usr/X11R6/bin/wmlist ; then for i in '/user/X11R6/bin/wmlist' ; do WINDOWMANAGER='type -p $i' test -n "$WINDOWMANAGER" && break done fi fi A. the WINDOWMANAGER variable will contain a string with a zero value B. the WINDOWMANAGER variable will contain a string containing the most recently used window manager C. the WINDOWMANAGER variable will contain a binary value to indicate whether a window manager was found or not D. kde E. fvwm2 F. wmlist Answer: D Consider the following items. Select the items that most accurately describe daemons. i. automated scripts that run at specified time as defined in the /etc/daemons.conf file. ii. utilities that reside in memory waiting for events to occur in order to perform a service iii. relatively small programs that reside in memory under the 640 K boundary A. i B. i and ii C. ii and iii D. i, ii, and iii E. ii F. iii G. i and iii Answer: E After installing Linux, you notice that the X Window system must be started with the "startx" command. Which of the following actions would allow one to automatically initiate the GUI. A. Edit the "/etc/inittab" line that reads "id:Z:initdefault:" where "Z" was the old multi-user run level. Change "Z" to another run level (usually 5) that starts the X Window display manager. B. Edit the "/etc/xstart" file and uncomment the line "#/usr/X11R6/bin/xdm" C. Edit the file "/etc/xhosts" and add the entry "startx wmanager" where "wmanager" is the name of the window manager to run at system startup. D. None of the above. Answer: A When attempting to initiate the X Window System, the configuration file will NOT be read if: (Select all that apply) A. X11 is initiated with the "startx" or "xinit" commands but the "~/.xsession" file has the desired changes. B. X11 is initiated with "xdm" but the "~/.xinitrc" file has the desired changes. C. X11 is initiated with the "startx" or "xinit" commands but the "~/.xinitrc" file is not set executable for the owner. D. X11 is initiated with "xdm" but the "~/.xsession" file is not set executable for the owner. Answer: ABCD A system has crashed and to repair the system you must get a file system copied to the damaged host but its network connection is not working. Thinking of alternative solutions, you grab a stack of floppies and execute the following command: goodhost$ tar cvzMf /dev/fd0 DirectoryName Then, you take the floppies to the damaged host and execute the command: badhost$ tar xzMf /dev/fd0 This is one way to move large files between two machines. A. True B. False Answer: A Some file names are "special." For example, if you were to write a shell script and use the file names "script" or "test", you may have unexpected program results because: (Select all that apply) A. The example file names also happen to be internal shell commands. B. The example file names are also system utilities and the shell may discover and execute these commands before it executes your files. C. You did not guarantee correct program invocation by using the "./script" or "./test" convention. D. You put "." directory in your PATH shell variable, but at the end of the list. Answer: BCD One of the most important security features that a system administrator must deal with is the shadow password suite. For what reason is this suite important? A. It improves the encryption for all passwords stored in the "/etc/passwd" file. B. It provides a second level of encryption for the "/etc/passwd" file. C. It moves the passwords to a separate file that has more restrictive permissions D. It moves the passwords to a separate file and will also encrypt the password file. Answer: C Which of the following options is true of the entry below? /dev/cdrom /cd iso9660 ro,user,noauto 0 0 A. This is an "mtab" entry which mounts a CD-ROM as a read-only device at boot time. B. This is an "fstab" entry which mounts a CD-ROM as a read-only device at boot time. C. This is an "fstab" entry which lets any user mount the CD-ROM. D. None of the above. Answer: C If Tom, the superuser, wants to add a swap file of 8 MB, what should he do? A. Just run the command "swapon -file /swap -size 8192". B. run commands "mkswap" and "swapon" C. run commands "mkswap" and "sync" D. dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap count=8192; mkswap 8192; swapon /swap Answer: D The system log files, which are written by the __________ daemon, are erased and then restarted whenever the system reboots. (Fill in the blank for the proper daemon, and then state whether the statement is true or false) A. syslogd, true B. syslogd, false C. systemd, true D. loggert, true Answer: B The "fsck" command will search all mounted file systems. A. True B. False Answer: B Tom, a Linux system user, has been using a Virtual Network Computing viewer but his viewer has crashed. He calls Kina, the system administrator, to ask her whether the viewer can be restarted from where it left off, or if he has to start the remote application all over again. Kina's response should be: A. No, the remote application cannot be recovered and Tom must start over. B. Yes, the remote application can be recovered by restarting the viewer. C. Yes, the application can be recovered by restarting the viewer. D. Yes, it can be recovered by restarting both the server and the viewer. Answer: B If Alladin mounted "/dev/hda2" under "/chem/inorg", then the original contents of "/chem/inorg" __________. A. are lost B. are copied in a directory into "/dev/hda2" under "orig.backup" C. can be retrieved after unmounting "/dev/hda2" D. are garbled Answer: C Assume that Priya and Sita are Linux system users and that Krishna is the superuser. Also, assume that both Priya and Sita were accessing files in the "/cdrom" directory and that they did not log out and their current working directory is still in the /cdrom hierarchy. Krishna wishes to install some software from a new CD-ROM that he bought. Which of the following are valid options for Krishna? (Select all that apply) A. He can just push the eject button on the CD-ROM drive that is currently in the drive, then insert his new one and start the installation. B. He has to find Priya and Sita and tell them to change directory from /cdrom so that he can then unmount the CD-ROM, eject it, put his new CD-ROM in, and then install. C. Krishna can use "umount -f" to force the unmount of the CD-ROM, then he can eject it, insert his CD-ROM, and install. D. He can use the "fuser" command to find all processes that are using the CD-ROM device, along with their associated PID's, kill each process, unmount the CD-ROM, eject it, put his CD-ROM in, and then install the software. Answer: BD Which of the following is NOT true about an inode? A. It is a data structure on the disk that stores file attributes. B. inodes are created when a file system is made. C. The number of inodes for the disk denotes the number of files and drives the disk can hold. D. The superuser can use the "chinode" command to increase the number of inodes in a file system. Answer: D If Priya created a symbolic link to "/bin/bash" in her current working directory and called it "yash", then which one of the following is true? A. She is not using any disk space. B. She is just using up an inode but no space. C. She is using both disk space and inode. D. She is just using up a directory entry, but no inode. Answer: C If Priya created a symbolic link using the following command: ln -s /bin/bash yash Then which of the following are TRUE? (Select all that apply) A. adding a file called "yash" does not consume another Inode B. The "ls -l" reports the same size for the file "yash" and the file "/bin/bash" C. a new inode is created for "yash" D. deleting the file "yash" has no effect on the file "/bin/bash" Answer: CD If Priya created a hard link by issuing the following command from her current working directory: ln /home/priya/mail/february lastmonth Then which of the following are NOT true? A. the file size of /home/priya/mail/february is not the same as lastmonth B. changing the file lastmonth also changes the file /home/priya/mail/february C. deleting the directory entry /home/priya/mail/february also deletes the directory entry lastmonth D. /home/priya/mail/february and lastmonth are the same file Answer: AC The most appropriate place for commands such as: insmod, ifconfig, reboot, lsmod, and route is A. /usr/bin; this is where all files that users have access to are placed B. /bin; this directory, by convention, is always on the root partition and available for use. C. /sbin; by convention, only the system adminstrator has /sbin in the default path, and this is always mounted on the root partition D. /opt/bin; by convention, these programs are for optimizing the system Answer: C If Krishna, the superuser, installed the "gcc" compiler, where would he put all of the header files? A. /usr/bin/gcc/include B. /usr/include C. /var/usr/include D. /opt/gcc/include Answer: B Which of the following directories, by convention, are NOT found in the /var directory? A. mail B. news C. bin D. spool Answer: C Assume Tom wrote a program that would let users on two separate Linux machines share their directories, but his program has to read an initial configuration file to know which user has decided to share which directory. Where should he ask the system administrator to put the configuration file? A. /usr/bin/ B. /etc/ C. /usr/local/bin/ D. A or C Answer: B Which one of the following is NOT true about the cron service? A. the cron service lets you execute scripts at a fixed time B. only root can execute scripts at a fixed time C. the "crontab" file specifies what the cron service should do D. the cron service is similar to the command "at" Answer: B If correct permissions have been setup, users can execute their own programs at a fixed time by submitting their jobs to the cron service using the crontab command. A. True B. False Answer: A The following entry appears in the /etc/crontab as follows: 30 4 * * 1 /bin/sh /home/Tom/rmcore 2>&1 /dev/null
Select the action below which best represents what it will accomplish.
A. “rmcore” will execute on April 30th for one hour
B. “rmcore” will execute on the first day of every month
C. “rmcore” will execute every Monday at 4:30 a.m.
D. None of the above
Answer: C
Which of the following statements about cron/crontab is NOT true?
A. each user can have his/her own personal crontab file
B. the crontab file is automatically created when a user account is created
C. the superuser can edit the cron table using the “crontab -e” command
D. cron jobs run with the permission of whomever submitted the job
Answer: B
Larry, the system administrator, is in trouble. His system has just crashed with a corrupted
partition table. His last backup was a week ago, and he needs the data that was on the disk right
before it was corrupted. Luckily, Larry had noted the specifics of the partition table. He can restore
this corrupted partition table by running fdisk from a rescue CD-ROM or floppy.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
When creating a new user account, unless otherwise specified, the files from the __________ are
automatically copied to the home directory.
A. /usr/skel
B. /etc/start
C. /etc/default
D. /etc/skel
Answer: D
What files will the adduser utility be editing when a system administrator creates an account on a
system with shadow passwords? Assume that the password will be added and changed later. (Select
all that apply)
A. /etc/accounts
B. /etc/passwd
C. /etc/user
D. /etc/shadow
E. /etc/user.def
Answer: BD
The following is an extract of a password file:
bin:x:2:2:System Tools Owner:/bin:/bin/tcsh
uucp:x:3:5:UUCP Owner:/usr/lib/uucp:/bin/tcsh
sys:x:4:0:System Activity Owner:/var/adm:/bin/sh
lp:x:9:9:Print Spooler Owner:/var/spool/lp:/bin/csh
Smith:*:1113:334:John Smith:/usr/people/jsmith:/bin/tcsh

The “*” in Smith’s passwd field is used to
A. indicate that Smith is the superuser.
B. deactivate Smith’s account.
C. indicate that Smith’s home directory is shared by other members of his group.
D. force Smith to change his password at his next login.
Answer: B
Ian has just written a shell script (a.out) and needs to give execute permissions of the script so that
members of his default group can execute the program. How should he do this?
A. chmod o+x a.out
B. attrib a.out +x
C. chmod g+x a.out
D. chmod u-x a.out
E. chmod o-x a.out
Answer: C
Which of the following are TRUE about the file permissions?
A. file permissions specify the way the file or directory can be used.
B. file permissions specify read, write and execute modes.
C. permissions are specified for user, group, and others.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above.
Answer: D
Sangita, the system administrator, needs to create two new groups, “develop” and “admin”. She
A. enter the group data in the “/etc/group” file
B. use the “newgrp” command
C. use the “creategroup” command
D. both A and B
Answer: A
Elizabeth, the system administrator, wants to set up accounts for different departments. All users in
the same department must be in the same group. How can she do this?
A. edit the “/etc/group” file to add all groups
B. creating a user with a new group would automatically create that group
C. edit the “/etc/passwd” file to add a new group
D. edit the “/etc/group.conf/” file to add a new group
Answer: A
The __________ is a program that changes the password for a group.
A. grpasswd
B. passwd
C. passwdgr
D. chgrp
E. chgrpwd
Answer: B
Ken has taken over development of a project from Mary, and needs to make himself the owner of
the directory “/project”. How should Ken do this?
A. chown /project Mary:Ken
B. chown Mary:Ken /project
C. chown /project Ken
D. chown Ken /project
E. Ken can’t do it as an ordinary user; but he can ask the superuser to do it for him.
Answer: E
The command “chown” can be used to change the owner of a file as well as the group ownership.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Larry, working as root, needs to change the ownership of the file “myfile” from “james” to “mary.”
He should:
A. chown myfile james:mary
B. changeowner mary myfile
C. chown james:mary myfile
D. chown mary myfile
Answer: D
When the init program or init daemon is executed, it reads instructions from the __________ file.
A. /etc/inittab
B. /proc/inittab
C. /etc/initconf
D. /proc/initconf
Answer: A
Which of the following are NOT true about run levels?
A. run levels specify the system state to init
B. run levels can be specified as either letters or numbers
C. run levels represent a software configuration of the system
D. none of the above
Answer: D
Which of the following is true about “/etc/fstab”?
A. It maintains a list of all volumes that one currently has mounted.
B. It can specify arguments for a command line manual mount.
C. By default volumes specified in “/etc/fstab” are mounted at boot time unless the “noauto” option is used.
D. both B and C
Answer: D
If Tom wishes to mount a floppy device and an entry is not present for the floppy device in
“/etc/fstab” then:
A. As a regular user, Tom can issue the mount command from the command line.
B. it means that a floppy device can only be used by the members of the “floppy” group
C. the floppy device will not be mounted at boot time.
D. both B and C
Answer: C
When mounting a volume listed in “fstab”,
A. it suffices to give only the device.
B. it suffices to give only the mount point.
C. both the device and mount point must be given on the command line.
D. A or B
Answer: D
Only the superuser can mount a file system that has not been listed in “/etc/fstab”.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Which of the following is NOT true about “/etc/fstab”, “/etc/mtab”, and “/proc/mounts” files?
A. All three files specify information about volumes and file systems.
B. “mtab” is used to mount a MS-DOS floppy.
C. “fstab” specifies mounting options for devices while “mtab” specifies details about mounted devices.
D. “/proc/mounts” is a kernel routine’s output.
Answer: B
If Alladin issued the following command:
find / -name core -exec rm -f {} ;
what is Alladin trying to do?
A. He is trying to find core files and execute the remove command with the fsck flag to check for errors.
This will remove the file if it has errors.
B. He is trying to remove core files from the directory “;”
C. Since core files are images of executables and since they tend to occupy more space, he is trying to find
such files in the system (starting from the “/” directory) and delete them.
D. Both A and B.
Answer: C
Assuming that zero-byte files are not being used by the system for any purpose, and if the superuser
wanted to delete all zero-byte files from the system, why and how could he do this?
A. as the number of zero-byte files increase, they cause disk fragmentation; find / -size 0 -exec rm {};
B. zero-byte files rend to occupy inodes without any disk usage and might lead to inodes exhaustion; find /
-size 0 -exec rm -f {} ;
C. zero-byte files share inodes and thus contribute to the inodes bulge; find / -zize o -exec rm -f {} ;
D. All of the above
Answer: B
Which of the following commands are candidates for backing up files? (Select all that apply)
A. tar
B. cpio
C. dump
D. dd
E. gunzip
Answer: ABCD
What does the following command achieve?
tar -cvf backup.tar /etc
A. It creates a compressed, verbose file “backup.tar” from the directory “/etc”. (Preserving symbolic links)
B. It creates an archive “backup.tar” from “/etc”, where tar recursively descends into “/etc” and archives all
the files therein.
C. It creates an archive “backup.tar” from the compressed directory “/etc”. (Preserving symbolic links)
D. It creates a directory “/etc” and funnels “backup.tar” into “/etc”.
Answer: B
Consider the following commands and select the option below which best describes what their
action(s) would be.
(i) tar -xvf junk.tar
(ii) tar -tf junk.tar
A. both (i) and (ii) are the same
B. (i) extracts and (ii) is not a valid option
C. (i) extracts and (ii) lists files in the archive
D. both are invalid options
Answer: C
Which of the following is NOT a valid command?
A. shutdown -h now
B. reboot
C. restart
D. halt
Answer: C
What would the command “shutdown -r now” do?
A. will reboot the system in 5 minutes, and the file system will be mounted readonly
B. will reboot the system now
C. will halt the system now
D. is an invalid command
Answer: B
Which of the following are valid tasks a superuser can accomplish using the cron service?
A. remove all “core” files every day at 4 a.m.
B. backup files every day that were modified in the last 24 hours
C. perform nightly compilation of a shell, “YASH”, that is under development
D. synchronize the system clock with a time server once a week
E. All of the above
Answer: E
If Alladin, the superuser, executed the following command:
find /home -size + 1024 -exec 1s -1 {} ; more
Which of the options below best represent the action that would occur?
A. the size of all files under /home would be increased by 1024 bytes
B. All files which exceed 1 MB in size would be found, listed to the standard output, and paged by “more”.
C. Same as answer B; but the “;” is an error.
D. none of the above
Answer: B
Kina, the system administrator, needs to make some changes to the system and does not want
anyone logged in while she does this. She issues a message to all of the users that are currently logged
in using the “wall” command and request that they logoff. Next, she creates the file “/etc/nologin”.
What is the result of the creation of the “/etc/nologin” file?
A. It will log off all local users.
B. It will log off all local users except for the superuser.
C. It will log off all remote users.
D. It will not permit any further logins.
E. It will not permit any further logins except the superuser.
F. It will not permit any further remote logins.
Answer: E
Which of the following are NOT valid methods for checking system memory resources?
A. cat /proc/meminfo
B. cat /proc/memstat
C. vmstat
D. ps m
E. top
F. memdump
G. free
Answer: F
A user can __________.
A. change the priority of any process
B. only increase the priority of his process(es)
C. only decrease the priority of his process(es)
D. cannot change the priority of a process
Answer: C
The command “renice” is used to change the priority of a process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
The lower the process priority number the lower the priority of the process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
In a Linux system, a swap file or swap partition acts as backup file.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
How would Tom, the superuser, disable a swap file found in the directory /swap?
A. swap -d /swap
B. mkswap -d /swap
C. swapoff /swap
D. none of the above
Answer: C
Tom, the system administrator, needs to issue a message to all users upon login. One way to do this
A. place the message in the “/etc/motd” file
B. use the “wall” command
C. use the “sendall” command
D. place the message in the “/etc/messages” file
Answer: A
The “/etc/issue” file usually contains:
A. a listing of all patches applied to the kernel.
B. a short message that identifies the system to the user.
C. a list of current news headlines for display after login.
D. the forwarding address for mail to the root account.
E. a list of all commands issued by the superuser.
Answer: B
Tom, a Linux system user, has a DOS diskette that he wants to be able to read on his Linux machine.
Eric, the system administrator, tells Tom there is a suite of utilities called __________ that can be
used to access DOS volumes or file systems without formally mounting them.
A. dostools
B. msdostools
C. mtools
D. dtools
Answer: C
Tom is using the mtools utility to examine a DOS diskette. He needs to know the name of one of the
files on the diskette and then needs to copy it. What is the proper command sequence to accomplish
this? (Not all items will necessarily be used)
(i) mls a:
(ii) mdir a:
(iii) xls a:
(iv) mcopy a:filename a:newfilename
(v) xcopy a:filename a:newfilename
A. (i) then (iv)
B. (ii) then (iv)
C. (iii) then (v)
D. (ii) then (v)
E. None of the above
Answer: B
Which of the following are NOT true about “touch”?
A. “touch” lets you create a 0 byte file
B. “touch” lets you change the modification time of a file
C. “touch” lets you change the access time of a file
D. none of the above
Answer: D
Select the option below which best represents the result of executing the following command:
ps aux grep greg
A. displays any entry which has the name “greg” in it.
B. displays only the first process run by user “greg”
C. both A and B
D. none of the above
Answer: A
Assume Kumar is a user in a Linux system who wants to learn more about bash shell scripts. He
writes the following program:
for i in *
echo $i
what does the script achieve? (Select all that apply)
A. It lists all the users in the system.
B. It lists all the files in the system.
C. It lists all files in the current working directory (except the files that begin with a “.”).
D. It provides the same information as the “ls” command.
Answer: CD
Assume Alladin is the superuser of a Linux system. Also assume that YASH is a project that is being
developed in the system and that Tim has been recruited as a new programmer. Alladin creates an
account for Tim with all the source directories for the project (/YASH/src). Alladin creates an
account for Tim at /home/tim and copied all the project directories into it. Alladin then wrote the
following shell script:
cd /home/tim
find . -exec chown tim {} ;
find . -exec chgrp developer {} ;
What does the script accomplish?
A. the script makes “tim” the owner of the directory “/home/tim”
B. the “chown” and “chgrp” commands are executed for the files in “/home/tim”
C. it changes owner to “tim”, group to “developer” and copies the files to “”
D. only files in the current working directory’s owner and group are changed
Answer: B
Assume that Kumar is a user in a Linux system and that he is a new member of a development team
whose responsibility is to develop perl projects. Kumar names all of his new perl files without any
extention. But he later realizes that all perl files should be named with a “.pl” extension. He decides
to write a bash shell script to RENAME all of his files. Assume that he executed the following script
from within the directory $HOME/scripts.
for i in $HOME/source/*
Can you help Kumar complete the script correctly by selecting an option for the blank?
A. ln $i $
B. ln * *.pl
C. mv $i $
D. mv * *.pl
E. cp $i $
F. cp * *.pl
Answer: C

Parse error: syntax error, unexpected T_VARIABLE in ….’path’ on line x:
Parse error: syntax error, unexpected T_VARIABLE in ….’path’ on line x where x =1,2.This is a popular PHP error encountered by beginners.Major causes and fixes can be as follows :
1) Check for a missing semicolon in the line specified in output error(line x)
2) Check for a missing curly brace
3)) While using mysqli_connect(“hostname”,”username”,”opassword”,”databasename”); – is the sequence to be followed … If the sequence is not in the specified order this error might pop up….

You are using a multi-byte character set with variable-length encoding. You need to store records whose values are always 20 characters. Which of the following column types would be the most efficient to use in terms of storage space?
C. The storage requirements for CHAR or VARCHAR would be the same
Answer: B
What is userfs?
This is a filesystem which runs partially in user space and can be linked with GnomeVFS.
What is a user space in Linux?
A conventional operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space. Kernel space is strictly reserved for running the kernel, kernel extensions, and some device drivers. In most operating systems, kernel memory is never swapped out to disk. In contrast, user space is the memory area where all user mode applications work and this memory can be swapped out when necessary. The term userland is often used for referring to operating system software that runs in user space.(source :Wikipedia).
What is the advantage of using Userfs?
Since Userfs has the actual filesystem code in user space, it becomes much easier for a developer to build or extend file systems than if they were in the kernel. Linkage with GnomeVFS makes accessing various kinds of local and remote file systems, e.g. ftp or webdav, transparent to the user and developer.

PMP Exam preparation question answer

Project Management Framework is comprised of set of Processes and Knowledge areas.Processes can be grouped under five major process groups namely :
1) Initiation /Initiating Process group
2) Planning Process Group
3) Executing/Execution Process Group
4) Monitor And Control Process Group
5) Closing/Closure Process Group
It is comprises of 9 major Knowledge Areas :
1) Integration Management
2) Scope Management
3) Time Management
4) Cost Management
5) Quality Management
6) Human Resources (HR) Management
7) Communication Management
8) Risk Management
9) Procurement Management
Which of the following is NOT included in the quality management plan?
Answer: A
Which of the following actions are irrelevant when the critical path needs to be reduced by 35% on a project?
A.Crashing time schedule.
B.Paralleling activities.
C.Adding resources.
D.Eliminating float.
E.All of the above.
Answer: D
Which of the following concepts refers to a response to a risk event that was not defined in advance and is currently happening?
A.Risk mitigation response.
B.Incidence response.
C.Workaround response.
D.Corrective action response.
E.Contingency response.
Answer: C
Which of the following should be archived upon completion of a project that involved significant procurement?
A.Project specifications.
B.Progress charts.
C.Financial records.
D.Project charter.
E.Inspection reports.
Answer: C
Which of the following represents the reason why post-contract evaluations are important?
A.The contract fee is contractor performance related.
B.It establishes a historical base for contractor selection.
C.It acts as a point of reference for making legal procurements.
D.Most contracts make them a necessity.
E.They are legally required in many jurisdictions.
Answer: B
Which of the following does not form part of Project Procurement Management?
C.Stakeholder analysis
D.Work statement
Answer: C
Where is work packages described?
A.Work charter.
B.Work schedule.
C.Work breakdown structure.
D.Work project plan.
E.Statement of work.
Answer: C
Which of the following represents the BEST way to organize project activities for scheduling?
A.By the critical path.
B.By the task start date.
C.By the date of commencement of project.
D.By work breakdown structure.
E.By the responsible organization.
Answer: D
The process to change a contract clause is __________ the project change control system.
A.Integrated within.
B.Unrelated to.
C.The same as.
D.An input to.
E.None of the above.
Answer: A
Which of the following is NOT necessary when developing a detailed project cost estimate?(Choose all that apply.)
A.Management plan
B.Resource requirements
C.Cost plan
D.Project character
E.All of the above.
Answer: A, C, D
What is necessary to check whether the scope of the project is being met?
A.Omit problems from the conference report.
B.Ensure that changes to the project character are reflected in the definition.
C.Verify the project schedule is on track.
D.Define causes and symptoms of identified problems.
E.Conduct periodic inspections, reviews, and walk-throughs.
Answer: E
During which of the following phases is a project’s scope statements developed?
A.The initiation phase.
B.The implementation phase.
C.The planning phase.
D.The verification phase.
E.The definition phase.
Answer: C
During a weekly meeting, the IT department states that they are bringing new CRM application system online. Though no problems are anticipated, in the event that a problem does arise, they will work overtime to stay on schedule.How would you react as the project manager operating in a matrix organization?
A.Assess the cost implication of this activity in the implementation phase.
B.Request that the IT department’s commitment be in writing.
C.Assess the risk of this activity and develop a response strategy.
D.Note this information in the minutes of the conference report meeting.
E.Request that the IT department delay implementation of the CRM application system until your project is completed.
Answer: C
What is signified when a forward and backward pass indicates total float is equal to – 20 days?
A.The project is estimated to be-20 days ahead of schedule.
B.Two branches converge on a node.
C.The critical path must be evaluated to determine actual slack time.
D.Duration compression may be required to meet the original project scope.
E.None of the above.
Answer: D
Which of the following approaches is likely to lead to the MOST lasting solutions in cases of conflict resolution?
Answer: B
Which of the following can you use to determine an individual’s willingness to take a risk?
A.Decision tree modeling.
B.Utility theory.
C.Monte Carlomethod.
D.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
E.Sensitivity analysis.
Answer: B
Which of the following represents the MAIN function of the change control board?
A.Issue change requests.
B.Assign new team members to increase output.
C.Review the impact of change request.
D.Identify new areas of project work.
E.Represent lop management interests.
Answer: C
Which of the following are technical staffs particularly responsive to?
A.Ad hoc power
B.Referent power.
C.Expert power.
D.Formal power.
E.Functional power.
Answer: C
The determination of conformance with scope requirements is called ____?
A.Quality Planning.
B.Quality Control.
C.Quality Management.
D.Quality Assurance.
Answer: B
In which of the following situations would the PERT method be applied most?
A.When little experience exists on which to base estimated of activity duration.
B.When knowledge of the interrelationships of activities are crucial.
C.When there is limited knowledge regarding the cost estimation related to the project.
D.When resource requirements are well defined.
Answer: A
Consider the following scenario: the contract is a fixed price/lump sum contract. The change control procedure in place states that written authorization for all changes is required. You noticed that there is a 200% budget overrun due to one of the project team members verbally instructing a supplier to perform work outside of its contracted scope of
work.How would you as the project manager address this project team member for the apparent disregard for following directions? What conflict resolution style will you employ?
Answer: B
Which of the following concepts are associated with the “Cost of Quality” in project management? (Choose all that apply)
A.Appraisal costs
B.Management costs
C.Prevention costs
D.Failure costs
E.Planning costs
Answer: A, C, D
Which of the following represents an example of developing alternative activity sequences?
A.Rolling wave.
B.Contingency planning
C.Risk aversion
E.All of the above
Answer: B
How many ADDITIONAL lines of communication will be created when the number of team members involved during the project increases from five to ten?
Answer: B
Which of the following can be used to measure overall project performance?
A.A work breakdown structure.
B.A Gantt chart.
C.An earned value chart.
D.A PERT chart.
E.A flow chart.
Answer: C
Which of the following represents the final task during project close-out?
A.Reassignment of team member.
B.Verification that contractual obligations were met.
C.Transferring the deliverables to the client.
D.Completion of performance/lessons-learned records.
Answer: C
In which of the following circumstances is it BEST to make use of the project management approach? (Choose all that apply.)
A.Cross functional tasks.
B.Unique operations.
C.Product manufacturing environment.
D.Time-constrained deliverables.
E.Production-line environment.
Answer: A, B, D
of the following should be done by the project manager upon completion of the project?
A.Planning a turnover meeting.
B.Obtaining a sign-off from the customer.
C.Team celebration.
D.Project evaluation.
E.Performance evaluation of team members.
Answer: B
When preparing the probability distribution of cost outcomes for a project, what is the estimate with a 15% probability of being exceeded approximately one standard deviation___________?
A.Above the mean.
B.Below the mean.
C.Below the median.
D.Above the median.
Answer: A
Which technique would you be using if you analyze which sequence of activities has the least amount of flexibility when you need to predict project duration?
A.Critical path
B.Dependency diagramming
D.Gantt chart
E.Monte Carlomethod
Answer: A
Which of the following is NOT an input of the Contract Administration process?
A. Selected Sellers
B. Contract Management Plan
C. Procurement Management Plan
D. Work Performance Information
Answer: C
Which of the following is a “hygiene factor” under Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
A. Self-actualization
B. Recognition for excellent work
C. Good relations with coworkers and managers
D. Clean clothing
Answer: C
Your project has a virtual team. Half of your team members are located in another
country, where they are working for a subcontractor. The subcontractor’s team members
speak a different dialect of English than your team does. After a conference call, two of
your team members make jokes about the way your subcontractor’s team members speak.
What is the BEST way to handle this situation?
A. Correct the team members individually, and hold a training session for your team to
help remove communications barriers
B. Immediately correct the two people in front of the rest of the team
C. Report the team members to senior management and recommend that they be punished
D. Remove noise from the communication by contacting the subcontractor and
requesting that the team adjust the way they speak
Answer: A
Which of the following is NOT part of the Contract Closure process?
A. An audit to verify that all of the legal obligations have been met
B. Making sure all invoices have been paid
C. Obtaining formal acceptance of all deliverables from all stakeholders
D. Writing down lessons learned
Answer: C
You are the project manager for a software development project. When you need to get
staff from the manager of the QA department, he suggests a few test engineers with
performance problems for your team. Which is the BEST response to this situation?
A. Tell the manager that you know which team members you want for your team and he
needs to give them to you.
B. Call a meeting with the QA manager to try to figure out why he suggested those
candidates and how the two of you can work together to find team members with suitable
skills and interests for your team.
C. Tell the QA manager that the staffing problems are really no big deal, and you’re sure
that the two of you can eventually figure out the right answer together.
D. Stop talking to the QA manager.
Answer: B
Rekha is a project manager on a large construction project. Late in the project, her client
demands a big change. She assesses the impact of the change and tells the client how
much time and money it will cost. But the client won’t allow any change to the schedule
and won’t pay anything more for change. Rekha explains that the proposed change is well
outside the documented scope of the original work. The client tells Rekha that he doesn’t
care what was in the original scope and that she needs to implement the change with no
impact to schedule or budget. What conflict resolution technique is he the client using?
A. Confronting
B. Smoothing
C. Withdrawal
D. Forcing
Answer: D
In which plan do you define the processes that will be used to keep people informed
throughout the project?
A. Communications Management Plan
B. Staffing Management Plan
C. Schedule Management Plan
D. Project Management Plan
Answer: A
Which of the following is an output of Direct and Manage Project Execution?
A. Contract
B. Preliminary Scope Statement
C. Work Performance Information
D. Statement of Work
Answer: C
A project manager is reporting the final status of the closed contract to the stakeholders.
Which form of communication is appropriate?
A. Informal verbal
B. Formal verbal
C. Formal written
D. Informal written
Answer: C

Procurement management PMP exam preparation tips

Procurement management includes the contract management and change control processes requires to administer contracts or purchase orders issued by authorized project team members.
The knowledge areas overlap and come under the following process groups of initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, closing . Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products,services or results needed from outside the project team.The organization can either be the buyer or seller of the products, services, or results of a project.
In this article we are going to discuss in-detail about various processes that form a part of the Procurement Management knowledge area, their inputs, tools and techniques, outputs. We’ll be also discussing in detail on where they fit into project management framework.Various processes that constitute/ part of procurement management knowledge area includes :
1) Plan Procurements – Plan Procurements is the first process in Procurement management knowledge area.Plan Procurements comes under planning process group.As per PMBOK(Project Management Body Of Knowledge), Plan Procurements is the “Process of documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying the approach and identifying potential sellers”.Whenever a project has been selected by project selection committee, next step is to decide on whether to execute it internally or use an external vendor to execute it.Such make-or-buy decisions are made in this process.
2) Conduct Procurements
3) Administer Procurements
4) Close Procurements

Tablespace management related commands

Tablespace is a logical structure in database.Tablespace is the grouping of one or more datafiles which are physical structures that store database data.

Create tablespace:

SQL>create tablespace tsname
datafile ‘/pathofdatafile’ size datafile-size
extent management local — default.other value is dictionary
autoallocate size — other value is uniform
segment space management auto; — default is auto.Other value is manual

To check if the datafile has been created successfully use :

SQL>select extent_management,allocation_type,segment_space_management from dba_tablespaces where tablespace_name=’tsname’;

Remove tablespace :

SQL>drop tablespace tsname;

If the tablespace has objects like table,index when we issue the above command we get error.So use:
sql>drop tablespace tsname including contents;

To physically remove the datafile as well use:
sql>drop tablespace tsname including contents and datafiles;

To drop referential integrity constraints use:
sql>drop tablespace tsname cascade constraints;

Alter the tablespace size – increase and decrease.If tablespace is already occupied it is not possible to decrease the size of the tablespace.

sql>alter tablespace tsname add datafile ‘/datfile-path’ size datafile-size;

To change the size of a datafile:

sql>alter database datafile ‘/datafilepath’ resize new-datafilesize;

PMP Certification Most popular project management certification

PMP the project management professional certification exam from PMI the project management institute is most popular among project managers. As an aspirant aiming to learn project management concepts PMP credential is most sought after in market and the PMBOK standard is widely accepted. Hence, PMP credential is the crown among project manager aspirants. There are equivalent diploma, certification programs from many different organizations, However, PMP stands apart and always holds onto its lead position

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Let us see why PMP is most popular and widely accepted among project manager community?
PMP exam is a rigorous process that attempts to validate the quality of candidate starting from application process. PMP exam application process validates the experience, educational qualification, expertise of candidates appearing for PMP exam to make sure they are competent to handle multi-million dollar projects upon completion of exam and acquiring PMP credential. This indirectly demonstrates the competency of candidates holding PMP credential

PMP Training has grown beyond project management

Project management is an art that deals with all aspects of a project. It basically determines processes, procedures, plans needed for successful implementation of a project. With changing application lifecycle trend project management has grown beyond projects and now considers agile scrum life cycle model and implements this as part of project management process. This has eventually led to evolution of project management certification on agile scrum

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PMI-ACP the PMI agile certified practitioner exam offers combination of training, relevant work experience, online exam and bridges agile approaches such as kanban, lean, scrum, xp
PgMP – This is the program management professional credential that has been in existence so long. This is the credential introduced by PMI while PMP started gaining momentum around 2008 timeframe. If you look at the program definition as per PMBOK, PgMP is the credential expected out of senior project managers who manage multiple, complex projects. The aim is to achieve targets strategically. Typically program managers get best benefit out of this credential
PfMP – Portfolio management professional is for co-ordinated management of one or more project portfolios
CAPM – The certified associate in project management is the foundation level credential geared towards candidates who are not typically eligible to appear for PMP exam
PMI-PBA – PMI professional in business analysis as the name suggests is catered towards business analysts. In a career ladder business analyst will be promoted the project manager. This is a credential that helps you leverage your stakeholder communication to gather requirements efficiently and effectively
PMI-RMP the risk management professional discusses on risk management topic with great focus. Assessing and identification of project risks along with plans to mitigate risk will save a project millions. Risk management is a pro-active measure to keep variables under control and this credential helps projects managers achieve so
PMI-SP – The Scheduling professional is for candidates who can specialize in creating, maintenance and management of project schedules

Oracle Cursor Life Cycle

Applications are built out of SQL statements. For optimal application performance, good understanding of cursor life cycle is needed. Processing of a cursor involves the following steps :
Open cursor :
1) Server-side private memory of the server process is UGA(user global area).
2) A memory structure for the cursor is allocated in UGA.
3) Just a portion of memory is allocated for the cursor and SQL statement is not associated with the memory structure.
Parse cursor :
1)A SQL statement is associated with the cursor. Its parsed representation that includes the execution plan (which describes how the SQL engine will execute the SQL statement) is loaded in the shared pool, specifically, in the library cache. The structure in the UGA is updated to store a pointer to the location of the shareable cursor in the library cache. The next section will describe parsing in more detail.Define output variables: If the SQL statement returns data, the variables receiving it must be defined. This is necessary not only for queries but also for DELETE, INSERT, and UPDATE statements that use the RETURNING clause.
Bind input variables: If the SQL statement uses bind variables, their values must be provided.No check is performed during the binding. If invalid data is passed, a runtime error will be raised during the execution.
Execute cursor: The SQL statement is executed. But be careful, because the database engine doesn’t always do anything significant during this phase. In fact, for many types of queries,the real processing is usually delayed to the fetch phase.
Fetch cursor: If the SQL statement returns data, this step retrieves it. Especially for queries,this step is where most of the processing is performed. In the case of queries, rows might be partially fetched. In other words, the cursor might be closed before fetching all the rows.
Close cursor: The resources associated with the cursor in the UGA are freed and consequently
made available for other cursors. The shareable cursor in the library cache is not removed. It remains there in the hope of being reused in the future.

ORA-00937: not a single-group group function

Database objects are of different names, types. They can be simple objects such as tables which are simple data structures that store data in the form of rows and columns. Objects can be dependent objects like index, views, constraints dependent on tables. Some other objects are synonyms, sequences etc.
The dba_objects view has a column object_type which specifies type of the object. Every object has a name, type and is owned by a schema.
Here is a query to get list of different objects, number of different objects in a database. count() is a grouping function and should be always followed by GROUP BY clause.
SQL> select object_type,count(object_type) from dba_objects;
select object_type,count(object_type) from dba_objects
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00937: not a single-group group function
This can be fixed as follows
SQL> select object_type,count(object_type) from dba_objects group by object_type;

——————- ——————
This fixed the issue. GROUP BY clause must succeed a GROUPING function.

ORA-27412: repeat interval or calendar contains invalid identifier: BYMONTHLY

I tried creating a scheduler job using PL/SQL code. DBMS_SCHEDULER package accomplishes this purpose. The value of the parameter was supplied wrong by me.I changed BYMONTHLY value to BYMONTHDAY and the problem got fixed
SQL> begin
2 dbms_scheduler.create_schedule(
3 schedule_name => ‘testschedule’,
4 start_date => NULL,
5 repeat_interval => ‘freq=monthly;’||’bymonthday=1’,
6 end_date => NULL, Comments => NULL );
7 end;
8 /
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.